26 June 2009

Condition of the Human Heart

Inside the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust.
The song under the photograph is “Schindlers List” it is a reminder of a very good friend, who survived the Shoah in Poland from extermination; even though she lost her whole family, as Wladyslaw Szpilman did. She was one of Oskar Schindlers Jews and her Nazi identification number was imbedded on her forehead. She immigrated to Israel after this and I was told later, is buried in Jerusalem from natural causes and I had the honor to meet her when I was about eight-years-old, her name was Esther (Estra Friedman). In a very short time, we did became very dear friend's and I still shed tears in the reminder; from the day she had to leave me and what she told me about her life; in later years, I have met a few people that carries the same kindness and perserverance that she had and yes, I call them my friends. But yet, I will never forget her as long as I live! Even with the thoughts of how many of my own family (who died in the Belzec gas chambers in 1942 and beyond), that died in this tragedy; known as the Holocaust or the Shoah and the tears of sadness, yet fall.

Whether one is Muslim or Jewish, we are a people that has lived the condition of the human heart; as anyone that has suffered the extremeness of unprecedented tragedy; whether it was the inhumanity of the Holocaust, to the continuous inhuman treatment which began over one hundred and ten years ago by the Americans and their conspirators.

If one would ask anyone who has suffered this type of tragedy to what keeps the heart beating after so much pain- love and the simple embrace of another human being.-HRM Deborah

Ruins of Warsaw Ghetto, smashed into the ground by German forces, according to Adolf Hitler`s order, after suppressing of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943. North-west view, left - the Krasiński`s Garden and Swiętojerska street, photo taken in 1945. (Enlarge for better View.)

In memory of Wladyslaw Szpilman (5 December 1911 – 6 July 2000),
a surivor of Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa) and was a exceptional Pianist. The movie called “The Pianist (2002),” is the true-life story based from Szpilman's memoirs just after the event and was directed by another Polish Holocaust survivor named Roman Polanski. Below is Wladyslaw Szpilman playing Chopin's Nocturne in C# minor.

The Pianist (Movie)

A Trailer of the movie starring Adrien Brody. The whole movie can be seen here. Directed by Roman Polanski

Polish Fryderyk Chopin’s Music

Statue of Fryderyk Chopin at the Łazienki Park in Warsaw (Poland)

Fryderyk Chopin’s music was an essential part of Wladyslaw Szpilman’s repertoire.

For us Poles, Chopin symbolizes revolution. It is not surprising that his monument in Warsaw was pulled down during World War II (by the Nazi's), nor that the wartime struggles led to his music being banned in Poland.

His music is our music-it’s like mother’s milk. It is what gave Szpilman strength and courage.

-Roman Polanski

Remembering Warsaw

Wladyslaw Szpilman playing Frédérich Chopin’s Mazurka op.17 no.4, the last frame of this video is from the movie “The Pianist;” where Szpilman (Played by Adrien Brody) plays the piano for Wilm Hosenfeld (played by Thomas Kretschmann).

The Umschlagplatz

Jews being loaded onto trains at the "Umschlagplatz" (German: collection point or reloading point) in the Warsaw Ghetto was where Jews gathered for deportation to the Treblinka extermination camp.

Around six o’clock a sense of nervous tension came over the compound. Several German cars had driven up, and the police were inspecting those destined to be taken away, picking out the young and the strong. These lucky ones were obviously to be used for other purposes. A crowd of many thousands began pressing that way; people were shouting trying to drown each other out, get to the front and display their physical advantages. The Germans responded by firing. The dentist still with our group, could scarcely contain his indignation. He snapped furiously at my father, as if it were all his fault. “So now do you believe me when I say they’re going to kill us all? People fit to work will stay here. Death lies that way!’

His voice broke as he tried to shout this above the voice of the crowd and the shooting, pointing the way the transports were to go.

Downcast and grief-stricken, Father did not reply. The businessman shrugged his shoulders and smiled ironically; he was still in good spirits. He did not think the selection of a few hundred people meant anything.

The German’s finally picked their labour force and now drove off, but the crowd’s agitation did not die down. Soon afterwards we heard the whistle of a locomotive in the distance and the sound of trucks rattling over the rails as they came closer. A few more minutes, and the train came into sight; more than a dozen cattle trucks and goods trucks rolling slowly towards us. The evening breeze, blowing in the same direction, wafted a suffocating wave of chlorine our way.

At the same time the cordon of Jewish police and SS men surrounding the compound became denser and began making its way towards the centre. Once again we heard shots fired to frighten us. Loud wailing from the women and the sound of children weeping rose from the close-packed crowd.

We got ready to leave, Why wait? The sooner we were in the trucks the better. A line of police was stationed a few paces away from the train, leaving a broad path open for the crowd. The path led to the open doors of the chlorinated trucks.

By the time we made our way to the train the first trucks were already full. People were standing in them pressed close to each other. SS men were still pushing with their rifle butts, although there were loud cries from inside and complaints about the lack of air. And indeed the smell of chlorine made breathing difficult, even some distance from the trucks. What went on in there if the floors had to be so heavily chlorinated? We had gone about half way down the train when I suddenly heard someone shout, ‘Here! Here, Szpilman!’ A hand grabbed me by the collar, and I was flung back and out of the police cordon.

Who dared to do such a thing? I didn’t want to be parted from my family. I wanted to stay with them!

My view was now of close ranks of the policemen’s backs. I threw myself against them, but they did not give way. Peering past the policemen’s heads I could see Mother and Regina, helped by Halina and Henryk, clambering into the trucks, while Father was looking around for me.

‘Papa!’ I shouted.

He saw me and took a couple of steps my way, then hesitated and stopped. He was pale, and his lips trembled nervously. He tried to smile, helplessly, painfully, raised his hand and waved goodbye, as I were setting out into life and he was already greeting me from beyond the grave. Then he turned and went towards the trucks.

I flung myself at the policemen’s shoulder’s again with all my might.

‘Papa! Henryk! Halina!

I shouted like someone possessed, terrified to think that now, at the last vital moment, I might not get to them and we would be parted for ever.

One of the policemen turned and looked angrily at me.

‘What the hell do you think you’re doing? Go, save yourself!’

Save yourself? From what? In a flash I realized what awaited the people in the cattle trucks. My hair stood on end. I glanced behind me. I saw an open compound, the railway lines and platforms, and beyond them the streets. Driven by compulsion and fear, I ran for the streets, slipped in among a column of Council workers just leaving the place, and got through the gate that way.

When I could think straight again, I was on the pavement among the buildings. An SS man came out of one of the houses with a Jewish policeman. The SS man had an impassive, arrogant face; the policeman positively crawling to him, smiling, dancing attendance. He pointed to the train standing at the Umschlagplatz and said to the German, with comradely familiarity and in sarcastic tone, “Well off they go for the meltdown!’

(Excerpt from Wladyslaw Szpilman’s memoirs)

Netanyahu Visits the 'Umschlagplatz' Memorial

An unidentified Jewish man awaits the arrival of unseen Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in front of the 'Umschalgplatz' memorial in central Warsaw on 26 January 2010.

The Israeli Prime Minister bowed his head in front of the imposing grey marble 'Umschalgplatz' memorial in the center of Warsaw, laying a wreath draped in a banner in the blue and white colors of the Israeli flag.

'At this place from where hundreds of thousands of our people were sent to death camps and where we meet today the Righteous Among the Nations, we encounter the worst evil in the history of mankind together with the greatest courage in the history of humanity,' Netanyahu told reporters at the site.

A Hell Called Treblinka

German Nazi extermination camps in occupied Poland (marked with black and white skulls)

Treblinka II was a Nazi German extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. Around 850,000 people - more than 99.5 percent of whom were Jews, but also other victims (among them 2,000 Romani people) - were killed there between July 1942 and October 1943; the camp was closed after a revolt during which a few Germans were killed and a small number of prisoners escaped.

Treblinka II was on a small hill. From camp one there was an uphill path (cynically called Himmelstraße—the Road to Heaven—by the SS) lined with barbed wire fences—der Schlauch, "the tube"—which led directly into the gas chambers building. Behind this building there was a large pit, one meter wide by twenty metres long, inside which burned fires. Rails were laid across the pit and the bodies of gassed victims were placed on the rails to burn. There was also a barrack for the prisoners who operated camp II.

Death’s Agony: Extermination

A memorial at Treblinka
Each stone represents a Jewish town or city, the population of which was exterminated at the camp.

At Treblinka, arriving by train, victims were pulled from the train, separated by gender, and ordered to strip naked. In winter, the temperature often dropped to -20 °C (-5 °F). The guards chose who would go to the "infirmary." Jews who were too resistant to the process were taken to the infirmary and shot. Women had their hair cut off before going into the gas chamber.

The gas chamber had portholes through which the Germans could watch the victims die. After the gassing of the victims in the gas chamber, when the doors of the gas chamber were opened, "the disfigured, bitten prisoners, with ears torn off, lay on top of each other in the most varied posture." The bodies were initially buried in large mass graves; in a later stage of the camp's operation, they were burned on open-air grids made of concrete pillars and railway tracks. Sometimes, the people were not dead and began to revive in the fresh air, especially pregnant women. They were shot by the guards and burned like the others. Some 800–1,000 bodies were burned at the same time, and would burn for five hours. The incinerator operated 24 hours a day.

A mass grave in Treblinka opened in March 1943; the bodies were removed for burning. In the background, dark grey piles of ash from cremated bodies can be seen.

The camp was disguised as a railway station to prevent incoming victims from realizing their fate, complete with train schedules, posters of destinations and what appeared to be a working clock (in reality, a prisoner would move the hands to the approximate time before each convoy arrived). The camp and the process of mass murder is described by Vasily Grossman, a Jewish correspondent serving in the Red Army, in his work "A Hell Called Treblinka," which was used as evidence and distributed at the Nuremberg Trials.

A Light Found in the Shoah: Wilm Hosenfeld

‘Hitler wants such a thing and there are Germans who will give such orders. If it is so, there can be only one explanation: they’re sick, abnormal or mad.’ - Wilm Hosenfeld on 23 July 1942, Warsaw; concerning German propaganda and the Final Solution.

Wilm Hosenfeld (full name: Wilhelm Hosenfeld; 2 May, 1895 in Mackenzell, Hessen-Nassau, Germany; 13 August 1952 near Stalingrad), originally a teacher, was a German Army officer who rose to the rank of captain by the end of the war. He helped to hide or rescue several Poles, including Jews, in Nazi-occupied Poland, and is perhaps most remembered for helping Polish-Jewish pianist and composer Władysław Szpilman survive hidden in the ruins of Warsaw during the last months of 1944.

Hosenfeld fed Szpilman what he could get from German food supply, usually bread; which included at one time a parcel of jam wrapped in greaseproof paper and gave Szpilman one of his German coats to keep him warm from the freezing cold. Furthermore, if Hosenfeld had been caught supplying a Jew food; especially in hiding, it would have cost him is life by the Germans and possibly his family as well.

He was born into the family of a conservative and pious Catholic teacher near Fulda. Family life had a Catholic character and Christian social justice work was emphasized during his education. He was influenced by the Catholic Action and Church-inspired social work, but also by German patriotism, and during his marriage by the increasing pacifism of his own wife Annemarie. He was also influenced by the Wandervogel movement and its adherents. He served in World War I from 1914 and was wounded in 1917.

Hosenfeld was drafted into the Wehrmacht in August 1939 and stationed in Poland from mid-September 1939 until his capture by the Soviet Army on 17 January 1945. His first destination was Pabianice, where he was involved in the building and running of a POW camp. Next stop, from December 1939, was Wegrów, where he remained until his battalion was moved another 30 km away to Jadów at the end of May 1940. He was finally transferred to Warsaw in July 1940, where he spent the rest of the war, for the most part attached to Wach-Bataillon (watch battalion) 660, part of the Wach-Regiment Warschau, where he served as a staff officer as well as the battalion sports officer.

Hosenfeld was posthumously recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. On 19 June 2009, Israeli diplomats presented Hosenfeld's son Detlev with the award in Berlin.

Excerpts from Wilm Hosenfeld’s Diary:

18 January 1942

They declare themselves to the right to personal and religious freedom, but they destroy the Christian churches and conduct a secret, underground battle against them. They speak of the Fuhrer principle and the rights of capable people to develop their talents freely, but they make everything dependent on Party membership. Even the most able and brilliant are ignored if they stay outside the Party. Hitler says he is offering the world peace, but at the same time he is arming in a disturbing manner. He tells the world he has no intention of incorporating other nations into the German states and denying them the right to sovereignty, but what about the Czechs; what about the Poles and the Serbs? Especially in Poland, there can have been no need to rob a nation of sovereignty in its own self-contained area of settlement.

They seize Polish and Jewish property to enjoy themselves. Now the Poles and the Jews have nothing to eat, they live in want, they are freezing, and the National Socialists see nothing wrong in taking everything for themselves.

Tomaszow, 26 June 1942

I hear organ music and singing from the Catholic church. I go in; children in white taking their first communion are standing at the alter. There is a crowd of people in the church. They are singing the Tantum ergo, and the blessing is being given. I let the priest bless me too. Innocent little children in a Polish city here, in a German city there, or in some other country, all praying to God, and in a few years’ time they will be fighting and killing each other with blind hatred. Even in the old days, when nations were more religious and called their rulers Christian majesties, it was the same as today when people are moving away from Christianity. Humanity seems doomed to do more evil than good. The greatest ideal on earth is human love.

1 January 1944

The German newspapers are indignantly reporting the confiscation and removal of art treasures by the Americans in the South of Italy. Such and outcry over other people’s crimes is truly ludicrous-as if the
didn’t know about the art treasures we’re appropriated and exported from Poland, or those we have destroyed in Russia.

Even if we adopted the “my country right or wrong’ view and accept what we have done with equanimity, such hypocrisy is out of place and can only makes us look ridiculous.

Within Hosenfeld’s diary, he gives several accounts of what was to him unbearable atrocities committed by the German’s against the Poles and especially the Jews; with great condemnation of these barbaric acts.

Which these atrocities will not be further mention at this time, do to the current situation of Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia today; which is the continuation of that time period, due to nature of the numerous similarities of criminal acts and war crimes being perpetrated by the American‘s across the globe. -HRM Deborah

From Warsaw (Ghetto) to the Shoah Passages

"For the survivor who chooses to testify, it is clear: his duty is to bear witness for the dead and the living. He has no right to deprive future generations of a past that belongs to our collective memory. To forget would be not only dangerous but offensive; to forget the dead would be akin to killing them a second time. The witness has forced himself to testify. For the youth of today, for the children who will be born tomorrow. He does not want his past to become their future." -Elie Wiesel

A child dying in a street of the over crowded Warsaw Ghetto, where hunger and disease were rampant due to poor conditions. Before the Nazi invasion, Warsaw was considered one of Eastern Europe’s centers of Jewish culture; with a population estimated well over 350,000.

1923: Germany experienced on of the most desperate inflation spirals any industrialized nation had known at the time. The country’s wartime financing had depended less on increased taxation and much more on loans and bonds, which then repaid by the governments already inflationary policy of increasing money in circulation at the time. As quickly as the paper was printed, its value depreciated.

Unfortunately, the problems plaguing Germany’s economy went well beyond both the debts that had accumulated during wartime (WW1) and the reparations demands that were another immense price for defeat. The war had harmed Germany’s industrial capacity. Its stock of raw materials and goods had severely depleted. Then there were the high costs of converting the economy from wartime to peacetime operation, a difficulty compounded by Germany’s high unemployment that problem, in turn was made no easier by the fact that in 1920 Germany still maintained 660,000 soldiers. To allegedly meet provisions of the Versailles Treaty, 560,000 had to be demobilized and then, somehow, absorbed into the German labor force. That goal could scarcely be accomplished in an economy who inflationary instability was rapidly destroying confidence in the government.

A One-Million Mark note issued in 1923 during the period of hyperinflation- The notes in these attachments were mostly issued in by the German Reichsbank in 1923 at the height of the 'hyperinflation' when the value of the currency plummeted to the point that a loaf of bread cost more than 3,000,000,000 (three billion) Marks.

In the early 1920’s, one US dollar was worth 100 marks; by January 1923, the mark fell to 18,000 per US dollar. Hyperinflation had replaced inflation. :Later in the year, the exchange rate soared to 4.2 billion marks to US dollar. Before the spiral could be brought under control at the end of 1923, the hyperinflation had ruined millions of ordinary Germans who depended on wages, fixed incomes or savings that had been carefully accumulated during better times.

8 December 1923: Germany signs an economic treaty with the United States; prior to this agreement on 26 September, Germany was in a full economic state of emergency. An immense portion of Germany’s financiers in the forthcoming years, would come directly from the US.

Prescott Sheldon Bush (US Senator from Connecticut), the father to former US President George H. W. Bush and grandfather to former US President George W. Bush, was just one of the financers of the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jewish people.

Fascism is on the march today in America. Millionaires are marching to the tune. It will come in this country unless a strong defense is set up by all liberal and progressive forces... A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government, and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy. Aboard ship a prominent executive of one of America's largest financial corporations told me point blank that if the progressive trend of the Roosevelt administration continued, he would be ready to take definite action to bring fascism to America. William Dodd, former US Ambassador to Germany, 1938

Illustration from an anti-Semitic children's primer. The sign reads "Jews are not wanted here." Germany, 1936.


The burning of the Michelsberg Synagogue, one of 200 synagogues burnt on Kristallnacht in Germany.

On 9–10 November 1938, the Nazis staged vicious pogroms—state sanctioned, Anti-Semitic riots—against the Jewish community of Germany and Austria. This came to be known as Kristallnacht or the “Night of Broken Glass,” a reference to the untold numbers of broken windows of synagogues, Jewish-owned stores, community centers, and homes plundered and destroyed during these pogroms.

Jewish merchants cleaning up following Kirstallnacht.

Encouraged by the Nazi regime, the rioters burned or destroyed 267 synagogues, vandalized or looted 7,500 Jewish businesses, and killed at least 91 Jews.

They also damaged many Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes as police and fire brigades stood aside. Kristallnacht was a turning point in history. The pogroms marked an intensification of Nazi Anti-Semitic policy that would forever be thought of by many as a dismal chapter, that created the spark that ignited the forthcoming Holocaust- the Nazi campaign of conquest and Jewish systematic slaughter and slavery.

1939: US State Department creates isolationism by closing their borders to Jews and Muslims, with the excuse that ‘US immigration quotas are filled for the year’ and no Jews or Muslims are allowed to enter into the country legally. Usually a petitioner was told to reapply at a later time or next year. Also, a Gallup poll reported that 83 percent of Americans opposed the admission of large numbers of Jewish and Muslim refugees. As another poll claimed that 53 percent of Americans felt Jews and Muslims by their ethnicity where “different” and should be required “Social and Economic restrictions.”

1939: Anti-Semitic propaganda was not just confined to Germany-the Roosevelt Administration used every form from posters, fliers and every other form of media available; as one flier was quoted, “Out with the Jews!!” Which with eyewitness oral accounts expressed that Muslims where also included under these persecutions inside the US itself, with former US President Franklin D. Roosevelt claiming that all US troubles such as issues within the Great Depression were blamed on the Jews and Muslims alike. Islamophobic and Anti-Semitic propaganda is still used today in the US, in the various types of media, even with such things as movies and television programs classified as entertainment; even to further punctuate their falsified “War on Terror” and their falsely alleged friendship with the Middle East, too further the US wars and harsh murderous occupations against Muslims and Jews.

1939: Jews are forced to wear armbands with the Magen David (Star of David), failure to do so was summary execution. Jews were further forced to purchase these armbands by such as Jewish boys in the street; as Jews were being forced to participate in their own form of psychological warfare or subjected to mental torture. Psychological warfare or mental torture is still common practice towards Muslims and Jewish prisoners by the US even today, as apart of their alleged ‘War on Terror;' to previous accounts of being used on Political hostages held captive by the US.

1 September 1939: German forces overrun western Poland, three thousand Jewish civilians die in the bombing of Warsaw.

8 December 1939: Six Jews and 25 non-Jewish Poles are accused of committing acts of sabotage against the Nazis and are shot in Occupied Warsaw.

12 December 1939: In eastern areas of Germany, two years of forced labor is made compulsory for all Jewish males aged 14 to 60. Jews are expelled from Kalisz in the Warthegau region of Poland; many flee to Warsaw.

27 December 1939: 106 non-Jewish Poles murdered in Warsaw by the Nazis.

1940: Nazi Race Science- classified humans according to the color of the eyes, to ones skin color and by body measurements. Anyone readily identified by dark skin and eye color, the Nazis viewed as a threat to “Pure Nordic Society” and subjected them to relocation and extermination-the gypsies were greatly threatened by the Nazi selective reasoning. In the US as late as into the 1960’s, many Jewish and Muslim mothers were afraid for their lighter skinned children to play out on a warm sunny day for fear that they would get a visible suntan and the Americans would harm the children.

1940: All public facilities in Warsaw and other cities with Jewish ghettos were strictly segregated. For example, certain streetcars where labeled “Only for Jew.” None-Jews were forbidden to travel in streetcars bearing this distinction. Jews that happened to ride the non-Jewish streetcars were executed. The segregation of the Polish population by the Germans was with the idea that non-Jews would not learn about the despicable conditions within the ghetto. Even the dead were segregated with Jewish and non-Jewish “corpse wagons.” As to the US, many forms of segregation is practiced throughout their history, to even today; especially among Blacks, Native Americans, Jews and Muslims regardless of the victims age or gender and there has been abundant cases of violence, terrorism, fraudulent (law-related) indictments or arrests and imprisonment for alleged wrongdoing of the innocent, to murder towards these groups by Americans; in too numerous of forms within the American ideology of superiority. Some of the victimized groups have called this situation, “The Silent War Zone,” due to the fact it is not as publicized or as visually pronounced as a regular war zone. In US institutions of learning, especially in the instances of elementary school children segregation in many forms is widespread; to classifying Jewish and Muslim children to be intellectually inferior to non-Jewish and non-Muslim children, some Jewish and Muslim children have been called, “
dumb” or “retarded” by non-Jewish and non-Muslim educators; as well as numerous forms of violence, with some extremely severe and abusive behavior towards Jewish and Muslim children.

1940: The Art of Looting-As the German army swept through Europe, they plundered the property of those they murdered. Hitler’s stated intention was to “extract from these everything that is possible to extract.”

Consequently, the Nazis shamelessly looted Europe’s cultural treasures, Hermann Goring, one of the biggest looters, scoured museums and private collections of wealthy Jews for works by famous masters. In his villa, he proudly displayed stolen masterpieces by Titan, Raphael, Rubens and Rembrandt.

Hitler’s alleged interest in Europe’s art stemmed from a plan to turn Linz, the Austrian city of his youth, into the hub of the world’s cultural capital.

The pillaging of art reached astronomical proportions. Throughout Europe, the Nazis acquired more than 100,00 works. In France alone they appropriated almost 22,000 objects (including 5,281 paintings) from 1940 to 1944, bringing them to Germany in 29 shipments that involved 137 freight cars.

But the Nazis were not alone, it has been claimed that the Nazis were also sending stolen art property to the US and their has been numerous evidence (including photographic documentation, as seen above) that the US themselves as they crossed the European front, also looting everything they could put a hand on.

21 February 1940: Nazis in Warsaw threw a Jewish woman from a moving street car.

26 June 1940: US Assistant Secretary of State Breckinridge Long determines to obstruct the granting of visas to Muslims and Jews seeking entry into the US. He seeks indefinitely to “delay" and effectively stop such immigrations by ordering American consuls "to put every obstacle in the way to postpone and postpone and postpone the granting of visas." His goal would be realized over the course of the next four years. This method is still used in a 'limited basis' in the US today, with certain forms of selectivity at the US’s discretion towards Muslims and Jews. As some Muslims and Jews are allowed entrance one moment and in a second moment, "denied" or just outright denied entrance do to political reasoning, in some cases.

11 September 1940: The Jewish refugee ship "Quanza" stops to refuel at Norfolk, Virginia after being denied entry into the US at New York. One passenger, a German Jew is returned to the ship by US Army guards after leaping overboard near the shore of Hampton Roads, Virginia.

"[Warsaw Ghetto] separation prevented the Jews from coming into contact with non-Jews and left them in a state of isolation, insulation, and chocking congestion.” - Israel Gutman (A survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto)

12 October 1940: On Yom Kippur, German loudspeakers in Warsaw announce that all Jews in the city must move to the Jewish ghetto by the end of the month. Two days later, 14 October; the Nazis move non-Jews out of a designated section of Warsaw and import Jews to replace them.

31 October 1940: All Jews to move into the Warsaw Ghetto.

October 1940: Jews are forced to pay for and build a wall around the Warsaw Ghetto.

11 November 1940: Fifty-five non-Jewish Polish intellection are murdered at Dachau, Germany. German authorities in Poland officially declare the existence of the Warsaw Ghetto.

15-16 November 1940: The Nazi’s seal off the Warsaw Ghetto from the rest of the city. On the 16 November, the walls of the Ghetto were sealed from that time until the final liquidation; traffic to and from the ghetto was tightly regulated. At first the ghetto had 22 gates and openings in the wall. By April 1941 only 13 remained, all of which were guarded by a cadre of police made up of German, Polish and Jewish. No one dared to walk through the gates without proper identification papers.

19 November 1940: A Warsaw Christian is killed by the Germans after tossing a bundle of bread over the wall into the Ghetto.

1941: A sign at the entrance of the Warsaw Ghetto reads, ”Plague Area: Only Through Passage Is Allowed;” this sign kept curious onlookers from getting to closer look at the horrible conditions within the ghetto. While non-Jewish Poles living in Warsaw were aware that Jews were confined to an area smaller than two square miles, the Nazis went to great lengths to hide the reality of life behind the ghetto walls.

Early 1941: The population of the Warsaw Ghetto swells to 400,000. Jewish residents are limited to 183 calories per day, Germans are allowed 2310 calories per day, foreigners 1790 calories per day and Poles 934 calories per day.

1941: In the Warsaw Ghetto, raids would occur when Jews would be forced to line up in the streets and further forced to stand with their hands above their heads for hours.

By the spring inside the Warsaw Ghetto was hellish, food was scarce, clothing consisted of old rags and medical supplies were virtually nonexistent. Under these circumstances the children of the Ghetto suffered horrendously, even some lying in the streets sleeping due to weakness from hunger and the despicable conditions. Heartbroken and helpless, parents where forced to witness the rapid deterioration of their children. Mortality rates skyrocketed from the previous winter of 1941.

1941: Polish women from Warsaw were led by German security forces into the Palmiry Forest, where they are executed. Individuals suspected of plotting against they occupying German forces faced violent retribution. The Nazis brooked no
opposition and no one was spared from their plans to dominate the world. Innocent men, women and children of all backgrounds were killed by the Nazis as they spreaded their reign of terror and destruction.

January 1941: Denied fuel, Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto are freezing.

9 January 1941: Nazi police break into a house in the Warsaw Ghetto forcing the women occupants to disrobe and went on to humiliating fondled them with pistols.

30 January 1941: On his eighth anniversary as German Chancellor, Adolph Hitler repeats his threat to destroy all the Jews in Europe.

31 January 1941: 3,000 Jewish deportees, mostly from the Polish town of Pruszkow arrive at the Warsaw Ghetto.

January-March 1941: 70,000 displaced Jews forced into the Warsaw Ghetto.

Jewish children in the Lodz Ghetto on their way toward transports that will take them to Chelmno Death Camp.

January-August 1941: About 13,000 Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto and 5,000 Jews in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto die of starvation.

February 1941: Non-Jewish Poles caught selling to Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto are automatically sentenced to three years hard labor. The daily bread ration for Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto is reduced to three ounces per day.

3 March 1941: A Jewish ghetto at Krakow (Poland) is established. When the order to establish a sealed ghetto in Krakow was implemented, Jews were forcibly conscripted to build the ghetto wall. At first Jews were simply pulled off the streets and told to work.

12 March 1941: Thirteen year-old Wolf Finkelstein is shot through the heart and lungs by a German sentry in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto.

17 April 1941: In Warsaw, a Jewish Policeman named Ginsberg is bayoneted and shot by German soldiers after asking a soldier to return a sack of potatoes taken from a Jewish woman.

21 April 1941: A mentally ill Jewish woman in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto complies when a German sentry orders her to dance. Satisfied, the sentry shoots her in the head.

24 April 1941: One hundred Jews are seized in the Warsaw Ghetto to dig canals and drain swamps in Poland’s Kampinos Forest.

Late April 1941: The German occupation of Greece was swift and brutal. Some Greek civilians were lined up in a wooded area by German paratroopers an executed. The Germans perceived that any opponents to their ideology were to be ruthlessly eliminated.

Dead bodies in the Warsaw ghetto, 25 May 1941-Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings by the Nazis, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz to the Treblinka extermination camp.

25 June 1941: When 47 year-old Dr. Benjamin From, a Jewish surgeon refused to break off an operation on a Christian woman at Lutsk (Ukraine), Germans drag him from the hospital to his home; where he and his family are murdered.

27 June 1941: In Bialystock (Poland), hundreds of Jews are burned alive in a local synagogue by a German motorized unit. German troops gather in a Synagogue courtyard in Nieswiez (Poland), beating and shoot exhausted Russian POW’s. Torah Scrolls were desecrated by the Nazis, while violence against the Jew was perpetrated; their religious articles and Synagogue’s were desecrated and destroyed. Even as seen today, by the US with their violence, destruction of Masjids (Mosques) and Synagogues some cases through bombings and numerous instances of desecration of the Quran; such as putting the Quran in a toilet or urinating on them such as was the case of some Americans and the US military at Guantanamo Bay Concentration Camp. Also, numerous instances of US law enforcement authorities parking in the proximity of Masjids and Synagogues to monitor activities, Jewish and Muslim presence and taking down of vehicle license plate numbers.

Late June 1941: American radio commentator Roman Catholic Father Charles Coughlin celebrates Hitler’s invasion of Russia as “the first strike on the holy war on Communism.” Germany invaded Russia on 22 June 1941, the German invasion towards Russia was a war of annihilation; as Hitler planned to totally destroy the political powers. The code-name for this attack was called, “Barbarossa.” From June to July 1941, more then 62,000 western Russian Jews are murdered by the Germans. The devastation from the Germans in Russia was immense.

31 July 1941: Hermann Goring instructs SS Reich Security Service chief Reinhard Heydrich by letter to evacuate and eliminate all European Jews presently in German-held territory. The letter mentions a “complete solution” to European Jewry.

August 1941: US Senator Gerald Nye denounces the “Yiddish Controllers” of American theater and movies. US Senator Burton Wheeler attacks Jews in the movie business and call’s them disgusting names. US Senator Champ Clark sponsors an investigation into Hollywood’s “Unpatriotic” Jewish filmmakers. (Unpatriotic because theirs films advocated involvement in the European war.) Other congressmen express Anti-Semitism. “Many Americans agree with these sentiments. Many Americans also believe that should the United States go to war; it should be against the Soviet Union, not against Germany."-as quoted.

2 August 1941: An American Jewish woman is among the approximately 200 Jews killed at Kovno (Lithuania).

5-8 August 1941: Eleven thousand Jews are murdered in Pinsk (Poland). Also, during this time it was common to strip a Jewish woman naked to humiliate them before execution.

14 August 1941: All residents of the Lesko (Poland) Jewish community are transported to Zaslaw (Poland) and executed.

24 August 1941: 86 year-old Dr. Jacob Wigodsky, longtime leader of the Jews in Vilna (Lithuania) is arrested and imprisoned. He is executed a week later in Ponary (Lithuania).

25-31 August 1941: The mass murder of Jews in German occupied-countries is staggering.

1941: Life in the ghetto’s remained a torment for the residents, whom the Germans regularly mistreated; such as a case of a German soldier dangling a Jewish woman by her hair as another German soldier watched in the Vilna Ghetto (Lithuania). “Germans were taught not to think of Jews as human, which made it easier for them to liquidate the ghettos once the death camps were established”-as quoted.

12 September 1941: German General Wilhelm Keitel exhorts his commanders in the East to be “ruthless” in their treatment of Jews. 3,434 Jews are taken from Vilna (Lithuania), to near by Ponary and executed.

Charles and Anne Lindbergh, members of the America First Committee attends an Anti-Semitic rally in Des Moines, Iowa at which Lindbergh makes highly inflammatory Anti-Semitic statements publicly. He blames the Jews for everything that is occuring, even the attacks upon them.

3 September 1941: Gassing tests are conducted at Auschwitz.

September 1941: German Jews are required to wear the Magen David (Star of David) on their clothes. The star, which made their “racial” background readily identifiable, contained the word ‘Jude.’

17-18 September 1941: A general deportation of German Jews begins.

29-30 September 1941: Massacre at Babi Yar-Days after the German Army captured Kiev (Ukraine), the bloodiest shooting massacre of the Holocaust took place on the outskirts of the city. Over the course of two days, Einsatzgruppen and Security Police commandos slaughtered more than 33, 771 of Kiev’s Jews at a ravine called Babi Yar.

Kikes of the city of Kiev and vicinity! On Monday, September 29, you are to appear by 08:00 a.m. with your possessions, money, documents, valuables, and warm clothing at Dorogozhitskaya Street, next to the Jewish cemetery. Failure to appear is punishable by death. ”
—Order posted in Kiev in Russian and Ukrainian, on or around 26 September 1941.

When a series of explosions and fires in Kiev killed many German soldiers and destroyed and army headquarters, Jews were falsely blamed. In retaliation, German authorities posted a sign announcing a supposed “resettlement” of the city’s Jews. Under the threat of death, more than 33,771 Jews were marched to the Jewish cemetery. From there they were marched in small groups to Babi Yar.

Stripped of all clothing, the trembling Jews were led into the ravine. Ordered to lie down, each was shot in the back of the head. The massacre continued uninterrupted. New victims were forced to lie on those already dead or dying. Corpses stacked up in layers.

A survivor recalled being miraculously untouched by the bullets; but, clutching her son to her naked body, fell under “a heap of warm bloody bodies. The bodies of old men rested on the bodies of children, who lay on the bodies of their dead mothers.”

German Commander Paul Blobel(Sonderkommando 4a of Einstzgruppe C) later attempted to obliterate all traces of the massacre. Blobel carried out numerous atrocities in the summer and fall of 1941. He was hanged at Landsberg Prison (Germany) on 8 June 1951.

October 1941: The first deportations of Jews from Berlin (Germany) occurs.

The German government prohibits further Jewish emigration from Germany, At Auschwitz, SS officer Author Johann Breitwieser takes note when a comrade is rendered unconscious after accidental exposure to Zyklon B (cyanide-based pesticide), the compound is eventually used to murder millions of Jews.

Germans drown 30 Jewish children in clay pits near Okapowa Street in the Warsaw Ghetto. ‘The Nazis believed it especially important to murder children, who represented in their minds, the future of the Jewish “race.”’-as quoted.

At the Buchenwald (Germany) Concentration Camp, Dr. Fritz Mennecke condemns 1,200 Jews to death by “Euthanasia.”

A man carries a pamphlet denouncing US President Barack Obama's health care plans outside a town hall-style meeting about health care with Rep. Anthony Weiner (D-NY) at Kingsborough Community College 1 September 2009 in the Brooklyn borough of New York City.

As many US elderly are fearful of the recent health care plan by current US President Barack Obama towards “Euthanasia” and while the Obama Administration has claimed within their plan that this is misguided information; but for several years now America’s elderly, especially the very ill have been quietly “Euthanatized" on many occasions or doctors have tried to receive permission to do so from family members. Which I personally, have witnessed this form of attempted murder, towards a Muslim man 67 years-old in 2003.

9 October 1941: Hans Frank, governor-general of Occupied Poland tells ministers of the German General gouvernement that “Jews must be done away with one way or another.”

10 October 1941: Field Marshal Walter Von Reichenau, commander of the German Sixth Army, issues a directive emphasizing the need for harsh treatment of “Jewish subhumanity.”

25 October 1941: SS officer Viktor Brack (he was hanged 2 June 1948, for crimes against humanity), a member of Hitler’s Chancellery, concocts a poison-gas program with which to address the “ Jewish question.” Brack’s notion is supported by Alfred Wetzel, of the Ministry of the Occupied Eastern Territories and by SS functionary Adolf Eichmann.

26 October 1941: Germans inform Jews of Kalsz (Poland), that elderly Jews in convalescent homes are to be moved the next day.

27 October 1941: A black van that stops at the Jewish old people’s home in Kalsz (Poland) is specially outfitted to route carbon monoxide into the cargo area.

28 October 1941: More elderly Jews from a convalescent home in Kalsz (Poland), are taken away in gassing vans.

27,000 Jews assembled in ‘Democracy’ Square in Kovno (Lithuania) must pass before an SS officer named Rauca, who signals life or death for each. 9,200 of the Jews-4,300 of them children-are sent to their deaths at pits at nearby Ninth Fort.

30 October 1941: A 12 year-old boy who escapes the Ninth Fort massacre of 28 October returns to the Kovno Ghetto and reveals what happened.

1 November 1941: Construction of Belzec (Poland) extermination camp begins.

13 November 1941: Warsaw diarist Chaim Kaplan writes that his wife has been stricken with typhus.

17 November 1941: Eight Warsaw Jews including six women are executed for leaving the ghetto without permission. The executioners pressed into service are polish policeman.

24 November 1941: A large "model ghetto"/concentration camp is established at Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) 35 miles from Prague. To prepare for the imminent arrival of inmates, 342 young Jewish men from Prague are brought in as forced laborers.


He was the last. Truly the last.
Such yellowness was bitter and blinding
Like the sun’s tear shattered on stone.
That was his true colour.
And how easily he climbed, and how high,
Certainly, climbing, he wanted
To kiss the last of my world.
I have been here seven weeks,
Who loved me have found me,
Daisies call to me,
And the branches also of the white chestnut in the yard.
But I haven’t seen a butterfly here.
That last one was the last one.
There are no butterflies, here, in the ghetto.

-Pavel Friedmann

Pavel Friedmann, a young Jewish man from the Theresienstadt Ghetto wrote this poem during his time there. He was later deported to Auschwitz and died on 29 September 1944.

The gate of Theresienstadt’s Small Fortress bore the Nazi slogan ARBEIT MACHT FREI (“Work Will Set You Free“). The Nazis had the insulting view point that Jews were “work shy,” which that Nazis created the impression that if Jews worked hard enough, they would earn their freedom. No Jew ever “earned” freedom, though for some continued work allowed them to survive until liberation. More often, however Jews were allowed to work only as long as they were needed or until they were no longer physically capable of performing their tasks. At this point the charade would end and workers would be put to death.

In mid-1944 the Nazis temporarily beautified Theresienstadt to deceive an investigating committee from the International Red Cross and to make a propaganda film that pictured the ghetto as Hitler’s gift to the Jews. As the facts were very different.

Of the 140,000 Jews who were sent to Theresienstadt, 33,000 died and 88,000 were deported and killed. Only about 19,000 survived.

Within Theresienstadt their was starvation, extreme overcrowding, disease and the constant dread of the transports to the East.

When Will the Blossoms Bloom

A total of 15,000 children under the age of fifteen passed through Terezin (Theresienstadt) Concentration Camp/Ghetto between the years 1942-1944; less than 100 survived. A collection of poems and drawings from the children did survive, with the collection known as "…I never saw another butterfly…" The children's drawings, poems and diary excerpt is from the collection. “These innocent and honest depictions allow us to see through the eyes of the children…are haunting reminders of what no child should ever have to see.”


He doesn't know the world at all
Who stays in his nest and doesn't go out.
He doesn't know what birds know best
Nor what I want to sing about,
That the world is full of loveliness.

When dewdrops sparkle in the grass
And earth's aflood with morning light,
A blackbird sings upon a bush
To greet the dawning after night.
Then I know how fine it is to live.

Hey, try to open up your heart
To beauty; go to the woods someday
And weave a wreath of memory there.
Then if the tears obscure your way
You'll know how wonderful it is
To be alive.


I'd Like to Go Alone

I'd like to go away alone.
Where there are other nicer people,
Somewhere into the far unknown,
There, where no one kills another.

Maybe more of us,
A thousand strong,
Will reach this goal
Before too long.

Alena Synkova

"It is important that after years of Czech citizens and especially youth can learn the oratorio based on the poetry of Jewish children interned during the war in the ghetto of Terezin."

Alena Synkova was born in Prague on 24 September 1926 and deported to Terezin on 22 December 1942. She wrote this poem as a child while in the Terezin ghetto, Alena was 16 when the camp was liberated by the Soviet army. She was one of only 100 children who survived, Theresienstadt.

And thereafter come…
Without them
There is no life.
Inspired by grief
That fall like rain.

-Alena Synkova

Drawing by Helga Weissova

I am a Jew

I am a Jew and will be a Jew forever.
Even if I should die from hunger,
Never will I submit.
I will always fight for my people,
How dignified they are.
Even though I am suppressed,
I will always come back to life.

-Franta Bass

The Garden

A little garden,
Fragrant and full of roses.
The path is narrow
And a little boy walks along it.

A little boy, a sweet boy,
Like that growing blossom.
When the blossom comes to bloom,
The little boy will be no more.

-Franta Bass

Franta (Frantisek) Bass was born in Brno on 4 September 1930. He was deported to Terezín on 2 December 1941 and died in Auschwitz on 28 October 1944.


That bit of filth in dirty walls,
And all around barbed wire,
And thirty-thousand souls who sleep
Who once will wake
And once will see
Their own blood spilled.

I was once a little child,
Three years ago.
That child who longed for other worlds.
But now I am no more a child
For I have learned to hate.
I am a grown-up person now,
I have known fear.

Bloody words and a dead day then,
That's something different than boogie men!

But anyway, I still believe I only sleep today,
That I'll wake up, a child again,
and start to laugh and play.
I'll go back to childhood sweet like a briar rose,
Like a bell which wakes us from a dream,
Like a mother with an ailing child
Loves him with aching woman's love.
How tragic then, is youth which lives
With enemies, with gallows ropes,
How tragic, then, for children on your lap
To say: this for the good, that for the bad.

Somewhere, far away out there, childhood sweetly sleeps,
Along that path among the trees,
There o'er that house
Which was once my pride and joy.
There my mother gave me birth into this world
So I could weep...

In the flame of candles by my bed, I sleep
And once perhaps I'll understand
That I was such a little thing,
As little as this song.

These thirty-thousand souls who sleep
Among the trees will wake,
Open an eye
And because they see
A lot

They'll fall asleep again...

-Hamal Hachenburg

Hamal Hachenburg was born in Prague on 12 July 1929 and deported to Terezin on 24 October 1942. He died on 18 December 1943, in Auschwitz.


Today the ghetto knows a different fear,
Close at its grip, Death wields an icy scythe.
An evil sickness spreads a terror in its wake,
The victims of its shadow, weep and writhe.

Today a father’s heartbeat tells his fright
And mothers bend their heads into their hands.
Now children choke and die of typhus here,
A bitter tax is taken from their bands.

My heart still beats inside my breast
While friends depart for other worlds,
Perhaps it’s better-who can say?-
Than watching this, to die today?

No, no, my God, we want to live!
Not watch our members melt away.
We want to have a better world,
We want to work-we must not die!

“twelve-year-old Eva Pickova from Nymburk”

Eva Pickova was born in Nymburk on 15 May 1929 and deported to Terezin on 16 April 1942; she perished in Auschwitz on 18 December 1943.


The poor thing stands there vainly,
Vainly he strains his voice.
Perhaps he’ll die. Then you can say
How beautiful is the world today?


"The One Left Behind"
Drawing by Fritz Lederer


The dusk flew on the wings of evening…
From whom do you bring me a greeting?
Will you kiss my lips for him?
How long for the place where I was born!

Perhaps only you, tranquil dusk,
know of the tears shed in your lap
from eyes that long to see
the shade of palms and olive trees
in the land of Israel.

Perhaps only you will understand
this daughter of Zion,
who weeps
for her small city on the Elbe*
but is afraid to ever return to it.


*The Elbe is a river that flows from Czechoslovakia to Germany.

Preparing for the Commission’s Visit

As what occurred during the following instance from a child's Terezin diary excerpt and what has continued to occur by the US into the 21 century, especially when extreme conditions of a crime perpetrated towards a large populace of humanity and is at its up most dire. The perpetrators of said crimes will use every form of diversion or method to hide the crimes from the outside world and even in many cases, that a prisoner while in the situation is threatened with reprisal not just to themselves whether it is torture, starvation or death, but towards a loved one or another if they talk; during there illegitimate incarceration, to the severity of the simple act of saying to those holding one "Good morning." For example in about 1974-75, something my mother had either said or done made the US government very angry and as a reprisal, I had came into the house; where I was attacked by our captor being at first slapped and hit with fists savagely. I tried to escape and was caught by my hair in the kitchen, where I was dragged by the table and my head was slammed against the wall and he continued to do so until I went limp, with the hope he would cease. During this time, my mother did not dare help me, but was forced to watch, if she would have tried to help me; I would have been killed. To this day, I still remember the horrified, helpless look in my mother's paled face. By the later part of 1975, I went through an attempted assassination by a US operative; which I did sustain injuries, but recovered. It was made to appear as a car, bicycle accident and of all things I was left on a curb with sustained injuries, my mother found me and insisted on medical treatment. The only reason I was even out, was I had gotten permission to go to the library to work on a school project. The one, who was US President during this time period; was Gerald Ford.

The Israeli Prime Minister for a short time during this period, was Yitzhak Rabin; who would later again be Israeli Prime Minister and would be assassinated with my mother in 1995. Something, I did not have an opportunity to learn until I was older was that Rabin was a kind man, especially to not just indirectly to myself; but my family, which something of this nature gives a reflection of the truth about who a person or people really where and more of an understanding of the "why's" the US murdered them. Which it has been known that Rabin and my mother were trying to free me and work towards a real peace for Israel. The initiative to free me was just prior to the car, bicycle incident.

It is also contended that the Anti-Semitic/ Islamophobic terminology used by the US to falsely criminalize the innocent, too not acknowlege a political hostage or prisoner exsistance and occupation, there concentration/ death camps under the guise of "detention centers" (Nazi Germany tended to call their camps "relocation," not death camps) is also just a few of these ploys; among numerous others.

It should be understood that the perpetrators of these types of horrendous crimes do not see the people they are mistreating or has as prisoners, as people; but as non-people or livestock and even goes so far as to attempt to try an destroy not just their hereditary identity, but everything that identifies a living person. While some cases they do succeed as some held in the US for extensive amounts of time, but there is numerous cases also; that the prisoner absolutely refuses this form of abuse and loss of the preciousness of not just identity, but everything that makes a person who they are and what is important to them. In my case, I had the privilege to be surrounded by a very remarkable, exceptionally kind, loving family; who a good portion where from my home country or refused to "Americanize," even though over time the US kept murdering them. My family lived, in a manner that if one was visiting many of there houses and you did not look out the windows; the interior looked as one would see in Israel during the period of the 1940's or some more previously. For the older generations survived the 1901 pogrom, the Holocaust and those that went through the 1948 Nakba.What was so surprising to me as a child, is the one that held my mother and me captive, was just the complete opposite of my family.-HRM Deborah

Girls’ Billets in Terezín before a visit by the International Red Cross, Terezín, 1944; pen and ink drawing with watercolor by Helga Weissova.

…The commission, because of which a transport left and the three-layer bunks were torn down, has departed, and I believe they were satisfied. They didn’t see through very much, stayed scarcely a half day, but that seems to have been only a rehearsal. The camp command issued new orders about the “beautifying campaign” that must be finished in two months.

It’s ridiculous, but it seems that Terezin is to be changed into a sort of spa. I do not know why I was reminded of the fairy tale “Table, Set Yourself!” But that is how everything seems to me. The orders are received in the evening, and in the morning everyone’s eyes are staring with wonder. Where did this or that thing come from? For three years it never occurred to anyone that streets might be named anything but Q and L…But all of a sudden the Germans had an idea, and overnight signs had to be put up on every corner house with the name of the street, and at crossroads arrows pointed: To the Park, To the Bath, etc….

"The Arrival of the International Red Cross Commission"
Drawing by Helga Weissova

The school building that had served as a hospital up to today was cleared out overnight and the patients put elsewhere while the whole building was repainted, scrubbed up, school benches brought in, and in the morning a sign could be seen afar: “Boys and Girls School.” It really looked fine, like a real school, only the pupils and teachers are missing. That shortcoming is adjusted by a small note on the door: “Holidays.” On the square the newly sown grass is coming up, the center is adorned by a big rose plot, and the paths, covered with clean, yellow sand, are lined with two rows of newly painted benches. The boards we wondered about for so many days, trying to puzzle out what they were for, turned into a music pavilion. We even have a café with a fine sign: “Coffeehouse.”

…They already have got quite far in painting the houses…In two of the barracks some bunks and shelves were painted yellow and they got blue curtains. In the park, in front of the Infants’ Home they put up a luxury pavilion with cribs and light blue quilted covers, In one room there are toys, a carved rocking horse, and so on. None of us can explain why they are doing all this. Are they so concerned about that commission? Perhaps we don’t even know how good the situation is.

-From the diary of Helga Weissova

Helga Weissova was born in Prague on 10 November 1929. She was deported to Terezin with her parents on 17 December 1941. A gifted artist at the age of 12, she recorded what she saw during her two hand half years at Terezin both in her diary and her drawings. She was sent to Auschwitz with her mother on 4 October 1944 and later, to work camps of Freiberg and Mauthausen. She survived and returned to Prague, where she studied painting with the Czech artist Emil Filla. Now called Helga Weissova-Hoskova lives and is an artist in Prague.

December 1941: The Nacht und Nebel (The Night and Fog Decree) is issued by Hitler through Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel. It allows Germantroups to execute any obstructive non-German civilians in occupied nations.

Generalplan Ost (General Plan for the East), directed by SS chief Heinrich Himmler, proposes the deportation of 31 million non-Germans in the conquered Eastern Territories to create Lebensraum (“Living Space”) for German colonists.

The German Ministry of Occupied Eastern Territories decrees that the destruction of Jews shall continue irrespective of economic considerations, the allure of unpaid Jewish labor will be ignored.

As to what the US is doing towards their illegal murderous war/ occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan, too some of the other US fronts; to also the continuation of the US economic downfall is most approximately the same principle as Nacht und Nebel; to even their threats and forced intimidations upon Muslims and Jews.

7 December 1941: Carrier-based Japanese
aircraft attack American navel bases in the Pacific with heavy assaults against Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, as well as Clark Field (Philippines).

8 December 1941: US declares war on Japan.

9 December 1941: China declares war on Germany and Japan.

15 December 1941: On the first day of Hanukkah, 15 Jews are shot to death in the courtyard of the Warsaw Ghetto prison.

14 December 1941: In the Warsaw Ghetto, a German Policeman opens fire on a Jewish funereal procession; killing two mourners and wounding five others.

Mid-December 1941: Hitler appoints himself supreme commander of the German Armed Forces.

16 December 1941: Hans Frank, governor-general of Occupied Poland, notes in his diary that 3,500,000 Jews live in the region under his control.

Half a Million Soviet POWs March to Nazi Camps (1941)

21 December 1941: Nazis display the corpses of several thousand Soviet prisoners of war on a road in Minsk (Belorussia).

Germans executed many Soviet POW’s, killed in a gas-chamber at a concentration camp, while many more were imprisoned and left to die. Soviet POW’s were singled out for persecution and death more frequently than any others, accept Jews.

The Nazis were encouraged to do this, in part, because the Soviet Union had declined to sign international agreements of 1907 and 1929 pertaining to the treatment of prisoners of war. “Murderous hatred provided the remainder of the German motivation.”

Twelve miles outside of Leningrad, 3,000 Soviet prisoners were murdered, placed in a mass grave, with several men found with their lower extremities naked and their trouser’s at their knees or ankles.

Hundreds of thousands of Soviet Soldiers met similar fates at the hands of their German captors. The estimate of Soviet POW's murdered by the Germans, is 3,000,000.

1942: Face of Starvation- Besides shootings and gassings, the Nazis also killed Jews through natural means: slowly starving them to death. In ghettos such as Warsaw, Jews received food rations that were a fraction of normal requirements. Children and the elderly perished first. Bloated corpses littering streets became commonplace.

In the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, journalist Joseph Zelikowicz witnessed thousands of people dragging themselves through streets, rummaging through piles of garbage to find “a piece of broken pot that can still be licked or a rag that once wrapped food and can still be gnawed at.”

Zelikowicz described bodies distorted by starvation, with “flabby stomachs, sunken breasts, hollows around the neck,” and legs so badly swollen that “if you stick a finger in such a leg, you leave an impression, a sallow gray spot, as in half-baked bread.”

In concentration camps, inmates also suffered starvation but were additionally forced to work to the point of exhaustion. Utterly desperate for food, prisoners in some camps even resorted to eating grass. Many became skeletal figures with, ashen skin, their cheekbones almost protruding, with elongated heads. Most also suffered from extreme, dehydrating diarrhea. Totally apathetic to life, for many relief came only through death.

As for US political hostages there is cases were they were forced into similar treatment, through forced labor to create extreme exhaustion and attempt towards death of the hostage and extensive periods of torture creating broken bones without the allowance of medical care in some cases, malnutrition so severe their eye’s were sunken and black, an underweight skeletal frame and skin that was expressed to look gray. Such as these have been forced to live in abject poverty or homelessness, to isolation nor allowed for others to come to their aid for just basic needs of survival, due to threats of death and other horrendous means. Many political hostages have also been killed by their captures and those who have tried to help these unfortunates, have been subjected to similar fates.

1942: The Nazis often insisted upon adding insult to injury by tormenting Jews who were about to be deported to extermination camps. Such as the case, of a Nazi humiliating and Orthodox (now known as the Ultra-Orthodox, in this particular situation for at one time Orthodox and Ultra-Orthodox was considered one or no difference between them by a manner of definition of sorts) from Czechoslovakian town of Stropkov by a crudely trimming of his beard, it was also common to cut the forelocks from and Orthodox (Ultra-Orthodox) Jew and in some cases placing near the Nazis hat to mimic or torment the Jewish victim- these occurrences were all too common.

Such actions not only pained the victims, but also allowed the Nazi perpetrators to unleash their contempt for the century-old culture of European Jewry.

Early 1942: The United Nations establishes the United Nations War Crimes Commission to handle future prosecution of Nazi war criminals.

Christian Wirth, a Nazi executions expert; hooks an armored-car diesel engine to the gas chambers at Belzec.

Early October 1942: At a small labor camp at Bundy (Poland), female German non-Jewish prisoners beat, mutilate and kill dozens of captive Jewish women. When the massacre is over, Auschwitz Commandant Rudolf Hoss (He was the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, where it is estimated that more than a million people were killed. Hoss was hanged for war crimes on 16 April 1947) inspects the carnage scene.

1942: As resources within the Warsaw Ghetto swindled almost to nothing, contraband food and other items became unimaginably valuable. Whether consumed by oneself or used as barter, such items could mean the difference of life and death. But if one was caught by the Nazis or a Jewish Policeman, one could be stripped of their goods or at worst, they would have been executed.

Wladyslaw Szpilman wrote in his memoirs of children smugglers in the Warsaw Ghetto which there were several. “The walls to the ghetto did not come down all along its length. At Certain intervals there were long openings at ground level which water flowed from the Aryan parts of the road into the gutters beside the Jewish pavements.” (Szpilman) “One day when I walked along beside the wall I saw a childish smuggling operation that seemed to have reached a successful conclusion. The Jewish child on the far side of the wall only needed to follow his goods back through the opening. His skinny figure was already partly in view when he suddenly began screaming, and at the time I heard a hoarse bellowing of a German on the other side of the wall. I ran to the child to help him squeeze through as quickly as possible, but in defiance of our efforts his hips stuck in the drain. I pulled at his little arms with all my might, while his screams became increasingly desperate, and I could hear the heavy blows struck by the policeman on the other side of the wall. When I finally managed to pull the child through, he died. His spine had been shattered.”

1942: Some American Jews (and Muslims), in face of critical levels of Anti-Semitism in the US are too afraid to put political pressure on the US government. Some morbidly afraid that what is occurring in Europe will happen to them in the US and even some Jewish and Muslims attempt to hide not just their appearance, but their religion, especially when questioned by non-Jews and non-Muslims.

The Jewish Combat Organization, a resistance group is formed in Warsaw (Poland).

Janusz Korczak, director of a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw refuses an offer of freedom from Polish friends and accompanies is young charges to Treblinka.

"Janusz Korczak and the children" memorial at Yad Vashem

Korczak's evacuation from the Ghetto is also mentioned in Władysław Szpilman's memoirs (On 5 August, some say 6 August 1942; German soldiers came to collect the 192 or 196 for the actual number is debated.)

One day, around 5th August when I had take a brief rest from work and was walking down Gesia Street, I happened to see Janusz Korczak and his orphans leaving the ghetto. The evacuation of the Jewish orphanage run by Janusz Korczak had been ordered for that morning. The children were to have been taken away alone. He had the chance to save himself, and it was only with difficulty that he persuaded the Germans to take him too. He had spent long years of his life with children and now, on this last journey he could not leave them alone. He wanted to ease things for them. He told the orphans they were going out in to the country, so they ought to be cheerful. At last they would be able exchange the horrible suffocating city walls for meadows of flowers, streams where they could bathe, woods full of berries and mushrooms. He told them to wear their best clothes, and so they came out into the yard, two by two nicely dressed and in a happy mood. The little column was lead by an SS man who loved children, as Germans do, even those he was about to see on their way into the next world. He took a special liking to a boy of twelve, a violinist who had his instrument under his arm. The SS man told him to go to the head of the procession of children and play – and so they set off. When I met them in Gesia Street the smiling children were singing in chorus, the little violinist was playing for them and Korczak was carrying two of the smallest infants, who were beaming too, and telling them some amusing story. I am sure that even in the gas chamber, as the Zyklon B gas was stifling childish throats and striking terror instead of hope into the orphans hearts, the Old Doctor must have whispered with one last effort, ‘it's all right, children, it will be all right’. So that at least he could spare his little charges the fear of passing from life to death."

The American Council for Judaism (a non-Zionist organization) is co-founded in New Your by New York Times publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger.

A gas chamber and crematorium are installed ad Dachau (Germany) concentration camp.

A force labor camp is established in Vilna (Lithuania).

US begins to receive pressure from certain European government’s and directors are sent for a meeting, concerning Nazi war crimes and the US position to respond as they began to feel heat for non-compliance as “Jews are not discussed as unique category of victims.”

The signing of the Reichskonkordat (a direct agreement between the Pope and Germany, this agreement is still valid in Germany) on 20 July 1933 in Rome (From left to right: German prelate Ludwig Kaas, German Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, Giuseppe Cardinal Pizzardo, Cardinal Secretary of State Pacelli (he wouldn‘t become Catholic Pope Pius XII until 2 March 1939, to end 9 October 1958) , Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, and German ambassador Rudolf Buttmann).

British Vatican Ambassador Frances d’Arcy Osborne writes in his diary that Catholic Pope Pius XII only occasionally denounces moral crimes. But such rare and vague declarations “do not have…lasting force and validity.” Osborne points out that the Pope’s “Policy of silence in regards to such offences against the conscience of the world must necessarily involve a renunciation of moral leadership.”

January 1942: Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau. The bodies are buried in mass graves in a nearby meadow. It has been estimated, that 1.1 to 1.6 million Jews die at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

A special medical commission visit’s the Gross-Rosen (Germany) concentration camp to select human subjects for medical experimentation. In the US, there have been oral eyewitness accounts that human medical experimentation were also occurring and was considered just as inhumane as what the Nazis were doing in Europe.

1 January 1942: The United Nations is first formed in Washington, D.C. by 26 signatories who agree to work together to defeat the nations of the Tripartite Pact and to work for a single, commonly shares resolution to the war. The three main countries or Axes in the Tripartite Pact were Italy, Germany and Japan.

5 January 1942: The Jewish ghetto at Kharkov (Ukraine) is liquidated.

20 January 1942: a stately mansion in the Berlin (Germany) suburb of Wannsee, formally a Jewish family residence, was expropriated by the Nazis.

Once a site for lakeside gatherings it hosted a meeting of German senior government bureaucrats to plan the “Final Solution” to the “Jewish problem.”

The attendee’s were Heydrich, Meyer, Liebrandt, Struckart, Neumann, Freisler, Buhler, Luther, Klopfer, Kritzinger, Eichmann, Muller, Hoffmann, Schongarth, and Lange.

Discussion pertains to the number of European Jews still to be dealt with, the future of slave labor, the separation of Jewish men from Jewish women, mass deportation and extermination, “The Final Solution.”

According to the protocol of the meeting, five million Jews in the USSR are marked for death ( including nearly three million in the Ukraine), 700,000 in Unoccupied zone of France, 5,600 in Denmark, and 200 in Albania; for nations not yet under Nazi control, including England (330,000), Spain (6,000), Switzerland (18,000), Sweden (18,000), and Turkey (55,500).

The total meeting time is less than 90 minutes.

Chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, the meeting went so well Heydrich downed a celebratory glass of cognac at its conclusion.

Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his wife Sara visited the now memorial site of the House of the Wannsee Conference on 27 August 2009, in Berlin (Germany).

14 January 1942: The US blacklists 1,800 European companies, making it illegal for any American to continue or began transactions with them. During this same period, the Vatican was acquiring immense wealth through buying or creating hostile take over’s of some European companies.

Mid-January 1942: The first Jews are deported from Lodz (Poland) to Chelmno extermination camp; it is estimated that the total number of Jews killed at Chelmno was 255,000.

19 January 1942: Soviet forces recapture Mozhaisk, the closest that German troops come to Moscow. With this, the Soviet capital is saved from occupation.

“If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.” -Adolf Hitler and publicly quoted by former US President George W. Bush (Hitler, also stressed in several of his speeches towards Christianized beliefs)

30 January 1942: In a speech to the German public, Hitler commemorates the ninth anniversary of him taking power, declaring the end result of the war will not be the destruction of the Aryans, but will be the complete annihilation of the Jews. The speech is monitored in Washington D.C. and one other European country.

19 February 1942: Jews at Dvinsk (Latvia) concentration camp are forced to witness the execution of a Jewish woman who exchanged a piece of cloth with a non-Jewish inmate for a box of flour.

Gas van in Chełmno extermination camp, similar was used at Belzec extermination camp.

22 February 1942: Ten thousand Jews are deported from Lodz (Poland) Ghetto to the Chelmno extermination camp, where they are gassed. It is estimated that 255,000 die at Chelmno.

March 1942: This month 5,000 Jews in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto die of starvation. 24,000 from Lodz (Poland) Ghetto are gassed at Chelmno extermination camp.

The Nazis began deportation from Central Europe to the extermination camp at Belzec (Poland).

1 March 1942: The Nazis began the construction of a new extermination camp at Sobibor (Poland). It is estimated that 250,000 will be killed at Sobibor.

2 March 1942: Six Jews at Janowska (Ukraine), labor camp near Lvov are forced to spend the night outside; all six freeze to death.

Children from a Jewish nursery in the Minsk (Belorussia) Ghetto are thrown into a sandpit, tossed sweets an then smothered to death. Mote than 5,000 Jewish adults from Minsk are also killed.

6 March 1942: During a meeting at the Head Office for Reich Security, Adolf Eichmann emphasizes the need for strict security during the deportation and annihilation of Jews presently living in Germany, Austria, Moravia and Bohemia.

14 March 1942: At Ilja (Poland), Jews sent to labor on a farm join Soviet partisans in a nearby forest. In reprisal, the Germans shoot old and sick Jews in the streets, then herded more than 900 Jews into a building that is set ablaze. All inside perish.

15 March 1942: Trumpeting his Wehrmacht (The Waffen-SS, the combat arm of the Nazi Party), Hitler predicts that the ‘Soviet Army will be beaten in every direction in the summer.’

16 March 1942: Over 1,800 Jews from Pochep (Russia) are executed.

17 March 1942: Full-scale extermination begins at the Belzec extermination camp; deportees are accepted from Poland and as far away as the western provinces of Germany. By the end of 1942, 600,000 Jews will be murdered there.

Initially, Belzec began as a labor camp; but became an extermination facility in March 1942, with killings conducted first by carbon monoxide and then by Zyklon B.

In 1942 a dozen of the camp's 22 SS men parade in the backyard of the cottage (The cottage of the commandant Christian Wirth across the road from the Belzec): right to left, Heinrich Barbl, Arthur Dachsel, Lorenz Hackenholt (nearest camera), Ernst Zierke, Max Gringers, unidentified, Reinholt Feix, Karl Scluch and Fritz Tauscher.

In spite of the orderly impression the SS guards would often try to convey, the killing process often went awry, inflicting horrendous suffering upon its victims.

The guards often jokingly referred to the killing site as the Hackenholt Foundation, named after SS Hauptscharfuhrer Lorenz Hackenholt, who ran the diesel motor that produced the carbon monoxide.

As to the prisoners they where usually deceived by the guards, ‘who told them they had entered a transit camp from which they would be assigned to various labor camps. Instead they were sent to the gas chamber.’

Just a portion of the Belzec Jewish Memorial

17 March to 14 April 1942: Nearly 30,000 Jews from Lublin (Poland) Ghetto are deported to Belzec extermination camp.

19 March 1942: Nazis arrest and deport to Auschwitz, 50 Jews from Krakow (Poland), as part of an operation directed against Jewish intellectuals.

24 March 1942: The first deportations of Jews from Western Europe to Belzec extermination camp begins. By late March of 1942, 1,500 more Jews are deported from Lvov (Ukraine) to Belzec.

26 March 1942: The first transport of Jews sent by Adolf Eichmann’s office goes to Auschwitz.

The first transport of Slovakian Jews (1,000) is deported to Auschwitz.

27 March 1942: The first transportations of Jews from occupied France to Auschwitz begins.

March-October 1942: Approximately 60,000 Slovakian Jews are sent to death camps.

April 1942: The Sobibor camp is nearly operational, gassings began in May.

Over 4,400 Jews die of starvation in Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto.

The first transports of Jews arrive at the camp at Majdanek (Poland), which will be gassing Jews later in the year.

German headquarters at Arras (occupied France), is attacked by the French Resistance.

Nazis execute 120,000 Romanian Jews.

Early April 1942: Jews mocked and hanged at Mlawa (Poland).

1 April 1942: Slovakian Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

3 April 1942: This days deportations from Augsburg (Germany) empty the town of Jews, ending a Jewish presence that was established in 1212. They are deported to Belzec extermination camp.

5 April 1942: The Lutheran Church of Norway issues “Kirkens Grunn” (“Foundation of the Church”), a letter condemning Nazism, racism and protesting efforts of Vidkun Quisling (He was executed by firing squad at Akershus Fortress on 24 October 1945), who was called “Norway’s German puppet,” accused of trying to “Nazify” Norway’s churches.

11 April 1942: A German proclamation issued in Lvov (Ukraine), excoriates Polish civilians who assist Jews.

Three thousand Jews from Zamosc (Poland) are deported to the Belzec extermination camp.

16 April 1942: SS officials in the Ukraine inform authorities in Berlin that Crimea is judenein (purged of Jews).

17 April 1942: The Nazi government decrees that apartments occupied by Jews in Greater Germany must be identified as such.

18 April 1942: In the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto, 52 people on a wanted list are dragged from their beds and killed. This will become known as “The Night of Blood.”

One thousand Jews who leave Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto by train for a ghetto at Rejowiec (Poland) are diverted to Sobibor extermination camp.

Disgusted with the inability to take Leningrad, Hitler relieves Field Marshal Wilhelm von Leeb of command of German forces in Northern Russia.

20 April 1942: At a banquet for Hitler in East Prussia, Hermann Goring announces that he was responsible for the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933 (The German Reichstag Building is set ablaze. The Nazis were quick to blame the fire on Communists), that set off the Nazi reprisals against ‘purported Communists Subversion.’ This same method was very possibly also used to create the 9 September 2001 attack in New York City by the US, in essence to create two illegal wars starting in 2003 and hatred not just towards the Middle East, but further towards Jews and Muslims themselves, to continue the US's ideals towards ethnic cleansing and brazen conquest.

24 April 1942: Jews throughout Greater Germany are prohibited from taking public transport.

26 April 1942: The Reichstag (see 20 April 1942) grants Hitler full authority in executive, legislative and judicial matters.

27 April 1942: 1,000 Jews are deported from the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto to Izbica (Poland); one, a woman escapes after arrival and survives. The other Theresienstadt deportees are sent to their deaths at Sobibor and Belzec extermination camps.

Nazis execute 60 Jews in Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto. Among the victims are people suspected of being involved with the underground newspaper.

29 April 1942: A German truck refuels near Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, carries luggage belonging to “resettled” Jews who have already been murdered at Chelmno extermination camp.

May 1942: More than 3,600 Jews in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto die of starvation.

Nazi forces their way into Jewish apartments in Warsaw, shoot and club the residents and throw the bodies from the windows.

A slave labor camp opens near Minsk (Belorussia).

Small groups of Jewish youths manage to escape into the woods outside Lida and Stolpce, towns in Belorussia.

Slovakian Jews and resident Jews at Chelm are deported to nearby Sobibor extermination camp and gassed. In addition, more than 36,000 Polish Jews from communities located between the Vistula and Bug rivers are gassed at Sobibor.

In the Eastern Galicia region of Poland, Jews aged 14 to 60 are driven to isolated spots and killed by hand grenades and machine guns after being forced to dig their own graves. Other victims of this “Aktion” include orphans, residents of old-age homes and women in the streets.

Inmates at Auschwitz-Birkenau are put to work as slave laborers at the camp, at a synthetic-oil and rubber plant near by Monowitz.

Jewish women at Auschwitz-Birkenau are selected for the Nazi macabre medical experiments.

A Jewish inmate at a labor camp at Schwennigen (Germany) is buried alive in the earth up to his shoulders for having an attack of diarrhea outside a barracks; after more then ten hours in the ground, the man dies.

In Holland, a collaborationist auxiliary police unit Vrijwillige Hup-Polite (Volunteers Auxiliary Police) is established. They are charged with the roundup of Dutch Jews for deportation to the East.

Communist Jews in Paris (occupied France) initiate organized armed resistance to the Nazi occupiers.

Germany on the African front also created not just labor camps, but forced labor as well; particularly Jews, as in one case in May 1942, of 2,600 Libyan Jews forced to build German military roads.

Early May 1942: Jewish Council members at Bilgora (Poland), are executed after refusing to compile a list of candidates for deportation.

260 Luxembourg Jews, some converted to Christianity, are sent to Chelno.

1 May 1942: About 1,000 Jews are murdered at Dvinsk (Latvia), only about 450 Jews are left in Dvinsk, down from 16,000 the previous year.

4-8 May 1942: Six Jews in Lodz (Poland) so fearful of deportation, commit suicide.

9 May 1942: The Jews of Markuszow (Poland) led by Shlomo Goldwasser, Mordechai Kirshenbaum, and brothers Yaakov and Yerucham Gothelf escape to nearby forests.

American poet Ezra Pound had this portrait taken on the day he was admitted to St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington in 1945.

On 9 May 1942, American poet Ezra Pound, who is working for the Fascist Italian government, broadcasts from Italy: “You would be better to inoculate your children with typhus and syphilis than allow more Jews into the United States.” America, Pound continued, “is ruled by Jews and their allies, who are the dirtiest dirt from the bottom of the Jew’s ash can.” Pound was later classified as insane.

10-12 May 1942: About 1,500 Jews are sent from Sosnowiec (Poland) to Auschwitz, the first of several deportations from the city. In August 1943, the Nazis deport Sosnowiec remaining 15,000 Jews to Auschwitz.

14 May 1942: Noted pianist Jewish Viennese Leopold Birkenfeld is murdered at Chelmno extermination camp.

18 May 1942: Report comes that 100,000 Jews were machine-gunned by the Nazis in the Baltic countries, 100,000 in Poland and 200,000 in western Russia.

22 May 1942: In an exercise conducted in a forest outside Mielec (Poland). Gestapo agents “cast” Jews as partisans, beat and mutilate them and then kill them.

27 May 1942: Belgian Jews are ordered to wear the Yellow Star.

Jozef Gabcik and Jan Kubis, Czech partisans with small arms and grenades, mortally wound Reinhard Heyrich, chief of the Reich Security Police and SD, where his car is ambushed in Prague. By 4 June 1942, Heyrich dies of blood poisoning caused by his injuries.

29 May 1942: In the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto, an ill Jewish man is tossed through a window to the ground, where he is shot.

June 1942: The World Jewish Congress, based in New York announces at a press conference that Eastern Europe is being turned into “a vast slaughterhouse for Jews.”

At the Belzec and Sobibor extermination camps, more than 23,000 Jews are gassed.

Auschwitz is ravaged by an epidemic of typhus.

Germans invade Jewish hospitals in Sosnowiec (Poland) murdering newborns and tearing patients from operating tables. Ambulatory patients are sent to Auschwitz and gassed.

A young Sosnowiec (Poland) Jew named Harry Blumenfrucht endures two weeks of Nazi torture, refusing to name his coconspirators in a scheme to steal weapons. His suffering ends when he is hanged.

Jews from Dabrowa Tarnowska (Poland) led by Rabbi Isaac and gathered in a Jewish cemetery, defy their Nazi captors when they hold hands, dance and drink “to life.” The enraged Germans shoot and disembowel the entire group.

Four thousand Jews in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto die of starvation.

Three thousand Jews at Pilica (Poland), are deported to Belzec extermination camp, but several hundred manage to escape before the journey is complete.

Mordechai Gebirtig, a Krakow (Poland) carpenter, Yiddish poet and whose songs of freedom are sung throughout Poland is executed at Belzec extermination camp. “Gebirtig is perhaps best known internationally for his song, "S'brent" (It is Burning), written in 1938 in response to the 1936 pogrom of Jews in the shtetl (small town) of Przytyk. It sounded an alarm for the approaching calamity that would become known as the Holocaust. Undzer shtetl brennt was sung in the ghettos of Nazi-occupied Europe. Since then the song, in the original Yiddish and in its Hebrew translation titled "Ha-Ayyarah Bo'eret" (העיירה בוערת, "Our Little Town is Burning!" - hence the occasional reference to a Yiddish title, "Undzer Shtetl Brent!"), continues to be widely performed in the context of Holocaust commemoration.”
-as quoted.

1942: Work was thought to be the key to survival in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto and most children worked. An accelerated course in tailoring was developed so that young people could learn a useful skill; by the end of 1942, even 9 year-olds were expected to work.

1-6 June 1942: Seven thousand Jews from Krakow (Poland) are murdered at the Belzec extermination camp.

3 June 1942: In Warsaw, Nazis shoot 110 Jews in a prison on Geisia Street. Ten Jewish Policemen where among the victims.

5 June 1942: The SS reports that 97,000 persons have been “processed” in mobile gas vans.

7 June 1942: A Jewish woman who had escaped from the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto into the city proper is dragged back into the ghetto and shot.

The Jewish Yellow Star is made mandatory in occupied France.

8 June 1942: The Jewish Council at Pilica (Poland) warns that every able-bodied Jew must attempt to flee to the nearby woods.

9 June 1942: At Lidice (Czechoslovakia), Germans begin to murder over 190 men and boys in retaliation for the attack on Reinhard Heydrich. (see 27 May 1942)

The Germans will murder another 47 men, women and children at Lezaky (Czechoslovakia).

When a Jewish mother at Pabianice (Poland), fights fiercely for her baby during a deportation, the baby is taken from her and thrown out a window.

12 June 1942: Jewish babies, children and elderly of Khmelnik (Ukraine) are shot in a nearby forest.

"Anne" (Annelies Marie) Frank, well-know author of “The Diary of Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl or The Secret Annex,” printed two years (originally published in the Netherlands as "Het Achterhuis" in 1947) after her death in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (Germany) in 1945 within days after the death of her older sister Margot of what was thought to have been typhus; due to 35,000 that year died of typhus in Bergen-Belsen.

For Bergen-Belsen’s reputation was known as being notorious for extremely unsanitary conditions and excessive starvation, due to the Nazis lack of conscience.

Anne's diary pertained to her family and four others living in hiding, until they where betrayed by most accounts by an Anti-Semitic non-Jew, who caused the annex to be stormed by the Nazis and the occupants of the secret annex were considered criminals for not presenting themselves as originally ordered for deportation.

As to the seven occupants of the secret annex, Otto Frank, Anne’s father would be the only survivor and he with the help of other’s caused Anne’s diary to finally be published. For it has been said, Otto felt the world should see and understand from what Anne had to say of this time period, that not was only of the annex, what led to them being in the annex, but the grotesque world known as the Holocaust, from a simple dairy, along with the new annex entry papers the Nazis scattered upon the floor that day.

On this particular day, Anne turned thirteen and was to receive the diary as a birthday gift.

“We Jews mustn’t show our feelings, must be brave and strong, must accept all inconveniences and not grumble, must do what is within our power and trust in God. Sometime this terrible war will be over. Surely the time will come when we are people again, and not just Jews…”-Anne Frank

13 June 1942: Three thousand Jews are deported from Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto to their deaths.

British Ambassador to the Vatican Francis d’Arcy Osborne observes about Pope Pious XII that his “moral leadership is not assured by the unapplied recital of the commandments.”

14 June 1942: Two thousand Jews break out of Dzisna (Belorussia).

18 June 1942: Jozef Gabcik and Jan Kubis, Czech partisans who mortally wounded Reinhard Heydrich on 27 May 1942, are discovered with several other partisans inside Prague’s Sts Cyril and Methodius church. The church is besieged by German troops and the SS. All partisans perish in the attack.

19 June 1942: Jews revolt at Glebokie (Belorussia), 2,500 are murdered in the Borek Forest.

Summer 1942: The Third Reich considers it has achieved its high point of conquest and territory.

Three-year-old Jewish twins in Sosnowiec (Poland), Ida and Adam Paluch, are spirited away from Gestapo agents by their aunt and sent to live with separate Catholic families.

It would not be until 1995, that the Jewish twins Ida and Adam Paluch are reunited after 53 years of having been separated following an Gestapo attempt to abduct them from their Sosnowiec (Poland) home; in that summer of 1942.

July 1942: Umschlagplatz- The tragic history of Warsaw Jewish Community resonates with the word Umschlagplatz (transfer pint). During the massive deportations that began in July 1942, averages of 7,000 Jews per day were forcibly marched to the Umschlagplatz, a way station on route to Treblinka Extermination camp.

During the first ten days of Aktion, 65,000 Jews were herded through the Umschlagplatz en route to their deaths. The violence of this operation surpassed anything the Nazis had previously perpetuated in Warsaw.

“The SS German police and their able-bodied and willing Latvian and Ukrainian helpers prowled the streets of Warsaw in search of their Jewish prey.

As long as the deportations continued the Jews of Warsaw clearly understood that survival depended on avoiding Umschlagplatz, the antechamber of death.”

22 July 1942: The beginning of mass deportation of Jews from Warsaw to Treblinka death camp personnel at the camp railway station are told to expect a “shuttle service” of Jews.

22 July-12 September 1942: 265,000 Jews are deported from Warsaw Ghetto to the Treblinka death camp, where they are exterminated.

23 July 1942: Adam Czerniakow, chairman of the Warsaw Ghetto Jewish Council, commits suicide rather than acquiesce to German demands to prepare 6,000 Jews each day for deportation.

Adam Czerniakow, a balding engineer in his early 60’s, headed the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto’s Judenrat (Jewish Council) for nearly three years. He wrote almost daily in a diary, which eventually consisted of nine notebooks. “The fifth notebook is missing, yet it remains unclear how many parts of the diary survived at all.” Rosalia Pietkiewica, a Warsaw Ghetto survivor; purchased it from a unidentified source in 1959. The original copy has been in Jerusalem at Yad Vashem since 1964.

Czerniakow reports, many of which begins with the morning temperature, “reveal him to be a modest man who worked against impossible odds to save Jewish lives.” His last diary entry, dated 23 July 1942, states: “It is 3 o’clock. So far 4,000 are ready to go. The orders are that there must be 9,000 by 4 o’clock.” The numbers refer to the daily quota of Jews that the Nazis required the Judenrat to assemble for “resettlement.”

As to the Warsaw Jews that were deported, the majority went to Treblinka extermination camp and were gassed.

Especially distressed by his inability to save the ghetto’s children, Czerniakow committed suicide on 23 July, soon after writing his diary’s final entry.

“My heart trembles in sorrow and compassion. I can no longer bear all this.”-Adam Czerniakow

SS Senior Colonel Viktor Brack advices Heinrich Himmler that all healthy Jews should be castrated or sterilized and the remainder annihilated.

27 July 1942: The German government in the Occupied Easter Territories warns that any Pole or Ukrainian who attempts to hide or assist a Jew will be “shot dead.”

28 July 1942: SS chief Heinrich Himmler writes to a senior SS official that the Occupied Eastern Territories “are to become free of Jews.”

Jewish parents in Tarnow (Poland), are forced to watch as their children are shot by the Gestapo agents. The parents and other adults are subsequently deported to the camp at Belzec for extermination.

The Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, two 16 year-old male Jews are hanged after escaping a work gang.

28-31 July 1942: About 30,000 Jews are killed in Minsk (Belorussia).

29 July 1942: The Nazis post notices in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto offering extra food (mainly bread and jam) to Jews who go voluntarily to “resettlement.”

30 July 1942: German industrialist Edward Schultz, whose company has mines near Auschwitz, reveals to a Swiss colleague that Hitler and the German Reich have decided to round up the millions of Jews of Occupied Europe, concentrate them in the East and murder them using Prossic acid starting in the fall of 1942. The information is soon communicated to Swiss World Jewish Congress representative Gerhart Riegner.

31 July 1942: Governor Wilhelm Kube reports to Hunrich Lohse, Reichskommisar of the Baltic regions and Belorussia that “Jewry has been completely eliminated” in the Minsk area.

Blum Rozenfeld, 19, leaps to her death from a fifth-floor window in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto.

Israel Lichtenstein writes from the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto:

“At present, together with me, both of us get ready to meet and receive death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalith, twenty month old today…I do not lament my own life nor that of my wife. I pity only the so little, nice and talented girl. She deserves to be remembered.”

Late July 1942: Germany decides not to disclose the whereabouts of Dutch deportees, saying on that they had been sent to “an unknown destination…somewhere in the East”-that is Auschwitz extermination camp.

August 1942: Throughout Europe, more than 4000,000 Jews are murdered.

In Poland, Swedish diplomat Baron Goran con Otter is told by SS Obersturmfuhrer Kurt Gerstein of Nazi killings of Jews in Poland.

76,000 Jews from Eastern Galicia region of Poland are deported to Belzec extermination camp. Throughout the month, 150,000 Jews are murdered there.

In the Volhynia region of Poland, 87,000 Jews are killed.

A heat wave and caterpillars destroy a cabbage crop cultivated by residents of the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto.

In the Ukraine, some 500 Jewish families are shot to death by SS Einsatzgruppen and dumped in a mass grave near the town of Zagradski.

The Majdanek (Poland) camp is fitted with gas chambers.

Fifty thousand Jews are deported from Lvov (Ukraine), to the Belzec extermination camp.

Catholic nun Edith Stein, born Jewish, is arrested in the Netherlands by the Gestapo. By 8 August 1942, she is gassed at Auschwitz.

1-12 August 1942: 81,000 Polish Jews from Warsaw are deported to the Treblinka extermination camp.

3 August 1942: 12, 000 Jews from Przemysl (Poland) are deported to Belzec extermination camp.

The first portion of Emanuel Ringelblum’s Warsaw diary, hidden in ten tin boxes and milk cans, is secretly buried for safekeeping by Warsaw schoolteacher named Israel Lichtenstein. (See 31 July 1942)

“The fate of Ringelblum's Archives is only partially known. In September 1946 ten metal boxes were found in the ruins of Warsaw. In December 1950 in a cellar of another ruined house at 68 Nowolipki Street two additional milk cans were found containing more documents. Among them were copies of several underground newspapers, a narrative of deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, and public notices by the Judenrat (the council of Jewish leaders), but also documents of ordinary life, concert invitations, milk coupons, and chocolate wrappers.

Despite repeated searches, the rest of the archive, including the third milk can, was never found. It is rumoured to be located beneath what is now the Chinese Embassy in Warsaw.”

Ringelblum was a Polish historian, politician and social worker, known for his Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto, Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyń, and the Ringelblum's Archives [ A Oyneg Shabbos (Yiddish) or Oneg Shabbat (Hebrew) group, which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, who were dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto] of the Warsaw Ghetto (Poland).

4 August 1942: The first deportations of Jews from Belgium to Auschwitz begins. The first day’s deportees number 998. Throughout Belgium non-Jewish Belgium households hide 25,000 Jews.

But more than 5,600 Jews including 4 August to 31 August id deported from Belgium to Auschwitz.

5 August 1942: SS troops in Radom (Poland) shoot 600 older people and children as well as hundreds of other Jews found in hiding places.

Six thousand Jews from the city’s small ghetto and 2,000 from the large ghetto are deported to Treblinka extermination camp.

The Jewish community at Pilica (Poland) is liquidated.

6 August 1942: Three thousand Jews are murdered at Diatlova (Belorussia), six hundred escape, more than 100 of whom form a partisan unit led by Hirsch Kaplinski. Hirsch Kaplinski, was a survivor of and August 1942 massacre of Jews at Diatlova (Belorussia), but by December 1942, he is killed in combat during a German attack on the Lipiczany forest.

6-17 August 1942: 20,000 Jews from Radom (Poland) are murdered at Treblinka extermination camp.

8 August 1942: Jews of Szczebrzeszyn (Poland), go into hiding when the Nazis order 2,000 to assemble for deportation. By days end, only a handful have been discovered.

US delays information on plan to annihilate Jews to verified sources.

9 August 1942: The Jewish community at Radun (Belorussia) id liquidated.

10 August 1942: 1,000 Jews deported by train from Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto and later transferred (near Minsk, Belorussia), executed and dumped into open graves.

800 Jews are murdered at Brozozow (Poland).

10-30 August 1942: 50,000 Jews from Lvov (Ukraine) are murdered at Belzec extermination camp.

11 August 1942: Jews resisting deportation from Kements (Ukraine), set the ghetto on fire.

In Belgium, 999 Jews, including 172 children, are deported to their deaths in the East.

13 August 1942: The Jewish communities at Mir (Belorussia) and Gorodok (Ukraine) are liquidated.

Switzerland forces Jews (mostly French) already safe in Switzerland back across the border. The Swiss government will turn back 10,000 Jews to their deaths during the remainder of the Nazi annihilation/conquest campaign on the grounds that only political refugees can be admitted into Switzerland, not “racial refugees.”

"The Swiss government does, however, welcome the gold that the Germans extracted from the mouth and fingers of the dead Jews." -as quoted

In the US well into the 1960’s, some Jewish and Muslims families; especially mother’s were often fearful when their children needed a tooth filling for a cavity which was usually gold, during dental care; because they believed that their children or family member would be murdered in the US and their gold filled teeth removed after death.

13-27 August 1942: 53,750 Jews from Warsaw (Poland) are deported to Treblinka extermination camp.

US State Department officials decide that the Riegner Cable outlining details of the Holocaust be kept secret.

14 August 1942: The entire Jewish community from Garlic (Poland) is deported to Belzec extermination camp.

14-15 August 1942: A woman named Rivka Yosselevska is one of just four Jews to survive a bloody burial-pit massacre outside Zagorsk (Poland), near Pinsk.

The Yosselevska family led a happy life in the village of Zagorodski, near Pinsk, highlighted by the births of the children Chaya, Feige, Rivka and a brother named Moshe. Their father had a leather goods shop and was considered one of the notables of the village.

Rivka Yosselevska was married in 1934 and had a daughter named Merkele.

But the family's feelings of security collapsed, when Hitler and Germany invaded the country. The brutality of the Nazis accelerated with murder, violence and terror and the family was herded into the Jewish Ghetto with five hundred Jewish families.

In the summer of 1942 the Einsatzgruppen arrived. They were mobile killing units of the Nazi SS, established for the purpose of murdering Jews, Gypsies, political leaders, and the intelligentsia. They followed German armies into the Soviet Union in June 1941 and executed over a million.

They surrounded the Jewish Ghetto, ordering the families to stand for a roll call all day. In the evening a truck arrived and Jews were loaded onto the truck. Many were ordered to run after it.

".. I had my daughter in my arms and ran after the truck. There were mothers who had 2 or 3 children and held them in their arms - running after the truck. We ran all the way. There were those who fell - we were not allowed to help them rise. They were shot right there, wherever they fell.

When we reached the destination, the people from the truck were already down and undressed - all lined up. All of my family was there. This was some 3 km from our village. There was a kind of hillock. At the foot of this little hill, there was a dugout. We were ordered to stand at the top of the hillock and the 4 devils shot us - each one separately. They were SS men - the 4 of them ..

When I came to the place, we saw people naked lined up. But we were still hoping that this was only torture. Maybe there is hope - hope of living. One could not leave the line, but I wished to see. Is there anyone down below? I turned my head and saw that some 3 or 4 rows were already killed - on the ground. There were some 12 people amongst the dead.

I also want to mention that my child said while we were lined up in the ghetto, she said, "Mother, why did you make me wear the Shabbat dress? We are being taken to be shot!". And when we stood near the dugout, near the grave, she said, "Mother, why are we waiting? Let's run!" Some of the young people tried to run, but they were caught immediately, and they were shot right there. It was difficult to hold on to the children. We took all children not ours, and we carried - we were anxious to get it all over - the suffering of the children was difficult.

We all trudged along to come nearer to the place and to come nearer to the end of the torture of the children. The children were taking leave of their parents, and parents of their elder people. We were driven .. we were already undressed, the clothes were removed and taken away. Our father did not want to undress. He remained in his underwear.

We were driven up to the grave .. when it came our turn, our father was beaten. We prayed, we begged with my father to undress, but he would not undress, he wanted to keep his underclothes. He did not want to stand naked. Then they tore the clothing off the old man and he was shot. I saw it with my own eyes.

Then they took my mother and shot her, too .. and then there was my grandmother, my father's mother, standing there, she was eighty years old and she had two children in her arms; and then there was my father's sister. She also had children in her arms and she was shot on the spot with the babies in her arms .."

15 August 1942: The Germans open Jawiszowice, a slave labor camp located near Auschwitz.

One thousand Belgian Jews, including 172 children, are deported to their deaths in the East.

Mid-August 1942: A healthy Jewish teenage boy is removed from a deportation train at the Belzec extermination camp, stripped naked, hung upside down from a gallows for three hours and then killed as the camp guards use sticks to force sand down his throat.

17 August 1942: 341 French Jewish children from the ages of two to ten, as well as 323 girls up to the age of 16, are gassed at Auschwitz. Two of the victims are Suzanne Perl, seven and her sister Micheline, age three

17-18 August 1942: 2,5000 Jews from Drogobych (Ukraine), are murdered at the Belzec extermination camp.

18 August 1942: Jews including 287 children are deported to the East from Belgium.

19 August 1942: Nazis murder the children of the Rembertow (Poland) Ghetto; the towns adult Jews, more than 1,000 are assembled for deportation to the Treblinka extermination camp.

About 300 of the people are ordered eastward along the road to Wesola. Before they walk a mile the 300 are murdered.

The 700 who remain are ordered to march south and as the group passes the town of Anin, one woman melts into a crowd of non-Jewish Polish onlookers and escapes.

Forty-five others are machine-gunned at Anin ostensibly because they attempt to escape.

Hours later, the marchers reach the ghetto at Falenica, where Jews already have been forcibly assembled; those who are discovered in hiding are shot.

Inside the ghetto, two Jews resist, using an axe to kill the first German who steps through the doors of their apartment.

At the Belzec extermination camp, 700 to 800 Jews herded into a gas chamber wait in torment for nearly three hours until a balky diesel engine can be started and the chamber filled with deadly gas. SS gas/disinfectant expert, but Anti-Nazi Kurt Gerstein is on hand to observe.

Gerstein, one day later at Treblinka extermination camp, witnesses similar deaths as was at Belzec.

22 august 1942: Ten thousand Jews from Wielun (Poland) are deported to Chelmno extermination camp.

Ten thousand Jews from Siedlce (Poland) are murdered at Treblinka extermination camp.

The Jewish community from Losice (Poland) is liquidated at Treblinka extermination camp.

24 August 1942: Jews locked in a church at Lask (Poland) are killed. Among the victims are a mother and her baby, who is born inside the church.

At Zdunsko Wola (Poland), 1,100 Jews are herded to local Jewish cemetery, where all but 100 are shot and beaten to death. The survivors are forced to bury the victims.

Japanese American (Internment) Concentration Camps where first opened about 24 August 1942 and finally closed about 31 October 1945.

US President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the internment with Executive Order 9066 on 19 February 1942, which allowed local military commanders to designate "military areas" as "exclusion zones", from which "any or all persons may be excluded." This power was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were excluded from the entire Pacific coast, including all of California and most of Oregon and Washington, except for those in internment camps In 1944, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion orders.

What this amounted too was all Japanese American’s would be interred in what did come to be known as concentration camps on US soil. More than 150,000 Japanese Americans were in these camps.

The conditions as in the European Nazi camps were very similar as an account of a Japanese woman survivor of one of the American camps remarked, ‘there were everything from food and water shortages to unsanitary conditions’ and yes, people died from these conditions. As to their treatment by the guards, many felt it was to harsh and severe which did bring fear among many of the inmates, as well as disdain.

As to the majority of these being held against their will a threat to anyone, which was by many of their own accounts, no; but as the US government, their pleas went unheard. It was also, during this particular period, that the American intention as an offensive term of "Jap or Jap's" came into the US mainstream of language; as many other words of this nature over time in the US, of other people from various ethnic groups. As in the latter years, of calling someone who is a Muslim, "rag head," for instance.

While many photograph’s of the day, made these camps more appear as POW camp’s, from those that had to live there it was vastly different.

The US government in their propaganda of the day, accounted that these particular Americans because they were at war will Japan was a dire threat to the security of America, especially coastal regions. But the US never took into account the sever suffering these Japanese American’s would suffer in these concentration camps.

As to the US psyche, concentration camps were not new then or what the future for this particular country became.

The first survivor from these camps, I met through a school chum in 1975; she was her mother.

26 August 1942: After being unloaded at Treblinka extermination camp, a Jew named Friedman uses a razor blade to cut the throat of a Ukrainian guard. SS guards retaliate by immediately opening fire on the other newly arrived deportees.

25-26 August 1942: Thousands of Jews from Miedzyrzec (Poland) are deported to Treblinka extermination camp.

Nearly 1,000 Belgium Jews, including 232 children, are deported to the East.

Two young brothers, seated for a family photograph in the Kovno Ghetto. One month later, they were deported to the Majdanek concentration/extermination camp. Kovno, (Lithuania), February 1944.

Children were considered useless from the Nazi viewpoint because they could not do heavy labor, so they were usually the first to be deported.

Teenagers were deported early because they were considered the most likely to partake in the resistance against the Nazis.

27 August 1942: 8,000 Jews from Wieliczka (Poland) are killed at Belzec extermination camp.

When a transport train carrying 6,000 Jews from Miedzyrzec (Poland) arrives at the Treblinka extermination camp, guards discover that nearly all of the 6,000 have died of suffocation during the 75-mile journey.

The Soviet defense of Stalingrad stiffens as the German siege intensifies.

27-28 August 1942: 14,000 Jews are killed at Sarney (Ukraine).

28 August 1942: 10,000 Miedzyrec Polish Jews are murdered.

German authorities order the arrests of Parisian priests who have sheltered Jews.

29 August 1942: The Jewish community from Olesko (Ukraine) is deported to Belzec extermination camp.

30 August 1942: Members of the Jewish community at Rabka (Poland) are murdered.

French Bishop Pierre-Marie Theas reminds his parishes that all human beings are created by the same God, Christians and Jews alike and that “all men regardless of race or religion deserve respect from individuals and governments.”

For Theas attempts to prevent the Jewish deportations and persecutions he would become one of the few individuals who received the honorary title: "Righteous Among Nations."

Theas continued to oppose the Nazi policies culminating in a fiery sermon in his cathedral in which he condemned the "Cruel and inhuman treatment of one of our fellow men" in 1944. He was arrested the night after the sermon by the Gestapo. He was sent to a concentration camp where he spent 10 weeks and then was released and returned to his parish.

After the war was moved to Bishop of Tarbes and Lourdes on 17 February 1947 and retired on 12 February 1970.

Late summer 1942: SS officer Kurt Gerstein (see 19 August 1942) fails in his attempt to publicize his knowledge of the mass gassing of Jews. He is rebuffed in his approach to the German Papal nuncio, Cesare Orsenigo.

September 1942: 14,000 Jews are taken to gravel pits at Piatydni (Ukraine) and machine-gunned.

German troops reach the Caucasus and began extermination of indigenous Jews there.

SS chief Heinrich Himmler suggests that camp inmates be put to work in on-site arms factories. Armaments chief Albert Speer objects, offering a compromise accepted b Hitler: Himmler’s inmates will be made available to Speer for labor in conventional arms factories.

Emanuel Celler (6 May 1888–15 January 1981) was an American politician from New York who served in the United States House of Representatives for almost 50 years, from March 1923 to January 1973.

New York Congressman Emanuel Celler, a Jew, submits legislation to allow French Jews about to be deported to their deaths in Eastern Europe to immigrate to the United States. The bill is killed by the House Committee on Immigration.

One Sunday a bearded rabbi came to Celle’s home, Celler always left the door unlocked on Sundays so his constituents could enter without ringing or knocking. The rabbi in black hat and long coat, clutching a cane, spoke forcefully to Celler. "Don't you see, can't you see?" the rabbi asked, "Won't you see that there are millions — millions — being killed. Can't we save some of them? Can't you, Mr. Congressman, do something?" Celler equivocated averring that US President Roosevelt had told him that he sympathized with the Jewish plight but could not divert ships being used to transport war material and soldiers to bring in refugees. The rabbi's reply moved Celler to tears: "If six million cattle had been slaughtered," he observed, "there would have been greater interest."

After the European campaign, as chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, Celler resolved to liberalize the immigration laws. In 1946, Congress so restricted the number of "Displaced Persons" who could enter the U.S. that, despite the starvation in Europe, fewer than 3,000 DP's actually emigrated the United States.

As Jews are being deported from France to their deaths in the Third Reich, the Vichy Ministry of Information urges the press to remember, “the true teaching of Saint Thomas and the Popes…the general and traditional teaching of the Catholic Church about the Jewish problem.”

Early September 1942: An SS guard on a deportation train headed for the Belzec extermination camp shoots and kills Jadzia Beer, a Polish girl from Jaworow, after her skirt becomes caught in a railcar window and dangles helplessly from the window.

1 September 1942: Thousands of Jews from Stry (Ukraine) are murdered at Belzec extermination camp.

Security forces raid five hospitals in Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, evacuating and slaughtering patients. Babies are thrown out of upper-story windows, some bayoneted before they hot the ground.

A German shepherd that licks the face of a Jewish baby at Treblinka extermination camp is savagely beaten by its SS master before the guard tramples the baby to death.

2 September 1942: The 10,000 Jews of Dzialoszyce (Poland), around up by the Gestapo agents with Polish and Ukrainian Police, then terrorized while standing in the hot sun all day.

2, 000 residents are executed in the Dolles Jewish cemetery. The 8,000 residents who remain are deported to the Belzec extermination camp.

3 September 1942: At Lachva (Belorussia), more than 800 Jews battle Nazis in a revolt led by Dov Lepatyn. Most of the resistance fighters are killed.

The Geneva-based World Jewish Congress learns of deportations of French Jews.

4 September 1942: Jews in Macedonia are required to wear the Yellow Star.

4-12 September 1942: Lodz (Poland) Ghetto’s Jewish Council leader Chaim Rumkowski acquiesces to Nazi demands for deportation of the community’s children and adults who are over age 65.

During the action, Germans fire randomly into crowds, execute individual Jews and invade Jewish hospitals. They deport approximately 15,000 people.

5 September 1942: Some 800 Jewish women at the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, weakened by hunger and overwork, are gassed.

6-7 September 1942: More than 1,000 Polish Jews are killed by Nazis in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto.

6-21 September 1942: Nearly 48,000 Jews from Warsaw (Poland) are deported to the Treblinka extermination camp.

Primo Levi (31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was a Jewish-Italian chemist, Auschwitz survivor and author.

“Hier is kein warum.”
(“Here there is no why.”)

-Auschwitz guard to inmate Primo Levi explaining his justification from preventing the thirsty Levi from sucking on an icicle, 1942.

7 September 1942: at least 5,000 Jews from Kolomyia (Ukraine), are deported to Belzec extermination camp; 1,000 are killed on Kolomyia Ghetto itself.

9 September 1942: 2,000 Jews are deported from camp in Lublin (Poland) to Majdanek concentration/extermination camp.

11 September 1942: Meir Berliner, and Argentine Jew deported to Treblinka extermination camp from Warsaw (Poland), stabs an SS officer, Max Bialas to death with a penknife. In reprisal, Berliner and 150 other Treblinka inmates are executed.

5,000 Jews are deported from the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto to Treblinka extermination camp. Among them is noted (Yiddish and Hebrew) author Hillel Zeitlin, age 71.

12 September 1942: More than 4,800 Polish Jews are deported from Warsaw (Poland) to the Treblinka extermination camp. A young Jew named Abraham Jakob Krzepicki escapes from Treblinka and makes his way back to Warsaw, where ghetto historian Emanuel Ringelblum (see 3 August 1942) sees that Krzepicki’s eyewitness camp testimony is taken down.

13 September 1942: The Jewish community at Checiny (Poland) is deported.

15-16 September 1942: Members of the Kalush (Ukraine) Jewish community are deported to the Belzec extermination camp.

15-21 September 1942: The Jewish community from Kamenka (Ukraine) is murdered a Belzec extermination camp.

16 September 1941: 6,000 Jews from Jedrzejow (Poland) are murdered at the Treblinka extermination camp.

18 September 1942: Food rations are dramatically reduced for Jews throughout Greater Germany.

Reich Minister of Justice Otto Thierack and SS chief Heinrich Himmler agree that Jews and selected other camp inmates will be transferred to SS custody for Virnichtung Durch Arbeit (extermination through work), also known as hard labor until death. (see 1942: Face of Starvation)

21 September 1942: Open-pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried (107,000 corpses) to prevent water decontamination (or fouling) and hide the evidence of atrocities.

22 September 1942: The Jewish ghetto in Czestochowa (Poland) is liquidated; 40,000 residents are transported to Treblinka extermination camp.

Early autumn 1942: New construction at the Treblinka extermination camp greatly increase it gas-chamber capacity.

Gas Chamber, Auschwitz Camp I (Reconstructed)

23 September 1942: Hundreds of Jews from Slovakia and 641 from France are gassed at Auschwitz.

At the Treblinka extermination camp, 10,000 Jews from Szydlowiec (Poland) are killed.

24 September 1942: Ukrainian and German police begin firing into the Jewish ghetto at Tuchin (Ukraine).

German Foreign Office Official Martin Luther passes on to subordinates the desire of Nazi Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop that deportations of Jews from across Europe be accelerated.

Kiddush ha-Hayyim

As a response to the Nazi genocidal programs, some of the Jewish religious leaders urged Jews to cling to life instead of willingly going to their deaths.

Writing in the early months of the Warsaw Ghetto, Rabbi Yitzhak Nissenbaum declared,
“This is the hour of Kiddush ha-Hayyim and not of Kiddush ha-Shem by death.

Formerly, our enemies demand our soul and the Jew sacrificed his body in sanctifying Hashem’s name. Now the enemy demands the body of the Jew. This makes it imperative for the Jew to defend it and protect it.”

Kiddush ha-Hayyim was characterized by many different acts from prayer, to covert publishing of newspapers, resistance, to maintaining solidarity within the ghetto. In what ever ways they could, many Jews struggled to preserve their spiritual life and religious community. Rabbi Avraham Shalom Goldberg proclaimed, “Every Jew who remains alive sanctifies the name of Hashem among the many.”

25 September 1942: Learning about the impeding liquidation of their ghetto, some Jews of Korets (Ukraine) escape to the forest; while others resist by setting the ghetto ablaze. Resistance is led by Moshe Gildeman.

Swiss police decree that race alone does not guarantee refugee status, thus preventing Jews from crossing the Swiss border to safety.

700 Romanian Jews, interned at Drancy, are deported to Auschwitz.

475 French Jews are gassed at Auschwitz. One of the victims is ballet director Rene Blum, the brother of former French Prime Minister Leon Blum.

Another is fourteen-year-old Denise Stenzus who was deported from Paris (Occupied-France) to Auschwitz.

As early as July 1942, the Nazis began deporting French Jews, such as Denise, who had been living in Paris to Auschwitz. Of the first 1,000 shipped to the death camp, only 17 survived until 1945.

Many died on the journey, which too three days. One survivor recalled that victims were “piled up in freight cars, unable to bend or to budge, sticking one to the other, breathless, crushed by one’s neighbor’s every move. This was already hell.”

Abraham Gamzu, chairman of the Jewish council at Kaluszyn (Poland), is executed after refusing to deliver Jews for deportation. Six thousand of the town’s residents are deported to Treblinka extermination camp and later killed.

Look unto this luggage very closely at the names and places of the previous owners who had them taken from them unwillingly. But yet, the Nazis did not just take luggage such as this, they took everything! From ones home, business, even the very clothing off a Jews back before they were murdered; a woman in Berlin (Germany) who was said to have remarked, that she was angry, because a pretty dress she received, happened to have a bullet hole and some blood on it.

26 September 1942: SS Lieutenant General August Frank advises camp administrators that Jewelry and other valuables seized from Jews should be sent to the German Reichsbank, that razors and other practical items should be cleaned and delivered to front-line troops for sale to them. Proceeds will go to the Reich. Further, confiscated household items are to be distributed to ethnic Germans.

Brussels Jewish leader Edward Rotbel is deported to Auschwitz. Several hundred Dutch Jews are gassed. By 9 October in Brussels (Belgium), five or six leading members of the Jewish community are released from incarceration following the intervention of Cardinal Joseph-Ernst von Roey and Belgium’s Queen Elizabeth.

26-28 September 1942: 42 German railway officials meet in Berlin to plan track upgrades and additional trains in order to hasten the deportations of Jews.

26-29 September 1942: Search parties of German and Ukrainian police capture 1,000 to 2,000 Jews who escaped from the Tuchin (Ukraine) Ghetto on 24 September. Some Jews are taken to Tuchin cemetery and shot, while most are killed where they are found in the forest.

27 September 1943: 300 cold and hungry women and children, part of the 1,000 Jews still at large following a 24 September escape from Tuchin Ghetto, return to the city under promises of safe repatriation. All 300 are shot. Of the 700 Tuchin Hews who remain at large, only about 20 will survive.

29 September 1942: 500 of nearly 800 Jews who attempt to escape Sernika (Poland) are killed by the Germans. Of 279 who reach nearby forests, 102 will perish before 1945.

30 September 1942: Hitler declares publicly that this campaign will mean the destruction of European Jewry.

September 1942-January 1943: Polish Jews trapped in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto construct more than 600 fortified bunkers.

Late 1942: Jewish prisoner’s endure the torture of sitting in the snow, reduced to skin and bones from an extensive period of malnutrition, few had the wherewithal to withstand the bitter cold. One woman, Gerda Weissmann Klein (Gerda Weissmann Klein’s memoir's is called, “All But My Life” and is a renowned author having written several other books; as well as “The Gerda and Kurt Klein Foundation.”) , survived a winter death march only because her father guided by intuition, had ordered her to wear her ski boots when deported from her native town of Bielitz (Poland)-on a hot summer day in 1942.

"Ilse, a childhood friend of mine, once found a raspberry in the concentration camp and carried it in her pocket all day to present to me that night on a leaf. Imagine a world in which your entire possession is one raspberry and you give it to your friend."-Gerda Weissmann Klein

October 1942: Jews are deported to Auschwitz from Holland and Belgium; to the Treblinka extermination camp from Central Poland and the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto and to the Belzec extermination camp from Eastern Galicia region of Poland.

In the Occupied Soviet Union, many Jews are killed in the streets, in forests and in rock quarries.

1,800 Jews are seized at Radzwillow (Ukraine); 600 escape.

All told this month, about 80,000 Soviet Jews are murdered at execution pits throughout the occupied regions of the Soviet Union.

Fifteen deportation trains arrive at Auschwitz from Norway, Belgium, Holland and Slovakia.

All the Jewish property in Norway is confiscated.

Most Jewish escapees from the village of Markuszow (Poland), are destroyed by German encirclement and sequent armored and artillery attacks after five months of freedom in area forest.

5,000 Jews are deported from Zawichost (Poland) to Beleze extermination camp.

1 October 1942: The Chelmek slave-labor camp located in Poland near Auschwitz- Birkenau opens to house Jews draining swamps to provide water to the nearby Bata shoe factory.

Germans serving in Reserve Police Battalion 101 publicly humiliate a Jewish man by forcing him to pose in a prayer shawl in a crouching position with his hands up, in Lukow (Poland), 1942. Almost 4,000 Jews were murdered during the liquidation of the ghetto on 2 May 1943. Obvious Jewish symbolisms- such as a Tallit (prayer shawl), Kippah (Yiddish: Yarmulkes or head coverings) and beard’s- made Jews seem to the Nazis as “more Jewish” and left them especially vulnerable to German assault; which something of this nature amounts to extremism in religious persecution on the part of the German's. Extremism in religious persecution has also been a long standing initiative within the US towards not just those within Judaism; but in the latter years, especially towards those within Islam; one is always reminded of the attacks and threats towards Muslim women due to there appearance as well as the unsolved murders perpetrated towards Muslim men, just because they where Muslim or someone was Jewish.

In Lukow (Poland), Jewish Council member David Liebermann is told by German authorities that he has collected to ransom Lublin’s Jews is useless and deportation will continue; whereupon Liebermann tears the money to pieces and slaps the German official in the face.

Ukrainian guards kill Liebermann immediately and 4,000 of the Jews Liebermann had hoped to protect are deported to Treblinka extermination camp, where they are gassed.

1-2 October 1942: Hundreds of Jews escape the Ukrainian town of Luboml, but are quickly hunted down. In all, some 10,000 of the town’s Jews are killed.

2 October 1942: At the Treblinka extermination camp, Jews from Zelechow (Poland) are murdered.

3 October 1942: The Polish ambassador to the Vatican details to Pope Pius XII (through a report through the secretariat of state) that the Germans have gassed thousands of Jews.

“One night we were awakened by terrifying cries. And we discovered, on the following day, from men working the Sonderkommando…that on the preceding day, the gas supply having run out, they had thrown the children into the furnaces alive.”

Vaillant-Couturier [( 3 November 1912 in Paris -11 December 1996, in Paris), whose real name was Marie-Claude Vogel], a French Resistance member imprisoned in Auschwitz, 1942.

4 October 1942: Berlins orders all Jews in concentration camps within Germany to be deported to Auschwitz.

6 and 9 October 1942: Thousands of Jews from Miedzyrzec (Poland) are deported to Treblinka extermination camp.

This chart outlines the appropriate forms of communication to be sent with each rail deportation of Jews. Coordinating the "Final Solution" was a tremendous logistical operation. Scheduling trains, selecting individuals for deportation, and determining where to send each shipment required a complex and sophisticated bureaucracy. It was important, therefore, to standardize the forms used to detail the shipping information that accompanied every train sent to a Nazi concentration camp or extermination center.

11-12 October 1942: 11,000 Jews from Ostrowiec-Swietokrzyski (Poland) are killed at the Treblinka extermination camp.

15-21 October 1942: An SS Aktion is undertaken against Jews of Piotrkow Trybunalski (Poland), many are shot in their homes and 22 are deported to Treblinka extermination.

17 October 1942: Operation Torch was the US and Allies invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign, which started July 1942. Which the landing actually took place on the Algerian cost and by accident on the US’s part, saved 117,000 Algerian Jews.

The Soviet Union had pressed the United States and their Allies to start operations in Europe and open a second front to reduce the pressure of German forces on the Soviet troops. For the US did not actually want to enter Europe at that time because alliance with Germany was causing the country and the investors to make a fortune even though the average American was not fairing as well.

Also, when the US entered Algeria, US general Mark Clark met with an Algerian Resistance group and gave them arms and some portable radio’s, to attack a Nazi French collaborator group in France. On the US’s part it was a bit of a forerunner to US liquidation of people over the years, such as the Saddam Hussein incident, which brought him death by hanging 30 December 2006, with his previous collaboration with the US.

Further, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt suspected the African operation would rule out an invasion of Europe, later on.

In the prospect that the US entering Europe, it was claimed to only be a limited situation, to the end supposedly if one or the other of the German or Soviet Union front's began to fail or falter.

As for the US eventual claims of entering Europe to fight the Germans and save the Jewish people, to liberating Jews from German camps is a fabrication due to the US's previous views towards the Jewish question and that the US at the time had still a narcissistic indifference to the plight and suffering of the Jewish people.

On this same day, US and Allied forces at El Alamein, Egypt fully defeated German General Erwin Rommel’s troops.

22 October 1942: Icek and Fraidla Dobrzynska, Jewish parents of two children who had been deported from Lodz (Poland) Ghetto back in September 1942, in their grief committed suicide.

24 October 1942: 252 friends and relatives of persons from Lidice (Czechoslovakia) are murdered at the camp at Mauthausen (Austria), in reprisal for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich.

25 October 1942: Germans demand that Oszmiana (Lithuania) give up 400 of its 1,000 Jews. The selection of the victims is assigned to the Jewish police in the nearby city of Vilna. Vilna Ghetto leader Jacob Gens decides to hand over Oszmiana’s elderly Jews in order to save the others.

Male Jews in Norway are arrested and sent by boat to Szczecin (Poland), then by railcar to Auschwitz extermination camp.

By 25 November, more than 700 Norwegian Jews total have been sent to Auschwitz extermination camp. Also, on the 25 of November, 532 woman and children from Norway are arrested and deported to Auschwitz.

Nazi Women Guards

Female guards at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

The SS included within its ranks female volunteers who guarded female inmates at concentration and death camps. Relatively few in number, these women sometimes exceeded their male counterparts in cruelty.

Irma Grese, nicknamed the “Belle of Auschwitz" (also known as “The Beautiful Beast;” on 13 December 1945 at Hameln Jail, she was hanged for crimes against humanity in both Auschwitz and Belsen), became a guard as a teenager and rose through the hierarch to oversee nearly 20,000 women prisoners. Grese took special pleasure in watching the doctors at Auschwitz perform disfiguring surgeries on women.

The Ravensbruck (Germany) concentration camp for women contained a training camp to prepare women to become supervisors. Some 3,500 women who trained at Ravensbruck served as guard’s there or at other camps.

While few guards exhibited kindness towards their prisoners, most allowed the harsh camp rules of beating and humiliating their prisoners. Few sought to intercede on inmates’ behalf. Some guards even competed with one another in cruelty, believing it was the route to promotion and respect from their male counterparts.

One prisoner reported that women were even worse than men in commanding their dogs to brutally attack inmates. Another prisoner attested that a female guard requested permission to watch the gassings at Auschwitz, a pastime she particularly enjoyed.

An Auschwitz prisoner lies beside the electrified barbed-wire fence that ended his life.

As to the guards in general their was many cases, were the guards would order inmates to run into the electrified fences causing them to be electrocuted to death.

27-28 October 1942: Seven thousand Krakow (Poland) Jews are deported to Belzec extermination camp; 600 are killed in Krakow.

28 October 1942: The first transport from Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) arrives at Auschwitz.

16,000 Jews are murdered in Pinsk (Poland).

The SS issues a secret directive that mittens and stockings confiscated from Jewish children at death camps be gathered and sent to SS families.

Jewish Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto leaders remark: “We are helpless in the face of the German criminals…The Germans are not trying to enslave us as they have other people; we are being systematically murdered…Our entire people will be destroyed…”

29 October 1942: 3,230 Jews from Sandomiero (Poland) are murdered at the Belzec extermination camp.

29 October-1 November 1942: Nearly all the Jews of Pinsk (Poland) are murdered.

Late October 1942: 3,000 Jews readied for deportation from eastern Poland to the Belzec extermination camp, are stripped naked to prevent resistance.

November 1942: Deportations of Jews from Holland and Occupied-France continue. 1,000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz from the Drancy (Occupied-France), transport camp. Nearly 5,200 are deported there from the Netherlands.

The Jewish Sonderkommando at Auschwitz-Birkenau is near completion of its task of exhuming and burning Jewish corpses buried in the camp.

The Jewish community in Vienna (Austria) is officially dissolved.

Klaus Barbie arrives in Lyons (Occupied-France), to head a special commando in section IV if the local Gestapo office. His instructions are to actively fight Jews, Communists, Freemasons and members of the French Resistance.

Nazi Medical Experiments
Josef Mengele preparing to operate on a child prisoner.

Criminal and completely unethical medical experimentation carried out on human “guinea pig’ by Gestapo Physicians mutilated and murdered more than 7,000 men, women and children. Victims were initially taken from Germany’s general population (Physically handicapped and the mentally ill) then from the ranks of concentration camp prisoners and POW’s.

In 1927 the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics was established in Berlin to develop German “race science.” Under director Eugene Fischer, the institute formulated complex race theories and encouraged the weeding out of Germany’s “genetically unfit.” Later, under Nazi rule, this philosophy culminated in forced sterilization and other, even more terrible research.

Nazi scientists were curious about the limits of the human endurance as well as bodily reaction to a whole catalogue of remorseless physical insult. At Auschwitz, Dr. Horst Schumann removed the testicles of young men after subjecting the organs to burning X-rays. At the same camp, Dr. Edward Wirths and gynecologist professor Dr. Carl Clauberg studied women’s wombs following injections of toxic chemicals.

Ravensbruck’s Dr. Karl Gebhart inflicted leg fractures on healthy, young Polish women and freely transplanted amputated limbs from prisoner victims to patients at the SS hospital. Dr. Sigmund Bascher was posted at Dachau, where he forced “patients” to swallow Polgal 10, a coagulant designed to inhibit blood loss. They were then shot at point-blank range.

Dr. Karl Brandt, chief of all German medical services, authorized tests of phosgene-and mustard-gas poisoning that were performed at Sachsenhausen by Drs Walter Sonntag and Heinrich Baumkotter.

Dr. Arnold Dohmann infected Sachsenhausen prisoners with hepatitis, deadly gangrene bacilli came courtesy of Dr. Ernest Grawitz, head of SS health services. At Buchenwald. Dr. Karl Genz infected prisoners with typhus. Other physicians throughout the camp system induced yellow fever, smallpox. Cholera, diphtheria, influenza and tuberculosis. At the prompting of the Luftwaffe, physicians at Dachau and elsewhere killed prisoners while studying their reactions to extreme heat and cold; and to oxygen deprivation during painful experiments simulating high altitude.

Auschwitz’s Dr. Josef Mengele-dubbed the “Angel of Death” by inmates-undertook particularly bizarre criminal research. He was fascinated by twins and attempted to change victims eye colors with chemical eyewashes; to surgically transform normal, living twins into Siamese twins; and to test comparative organ reactions after injecting chloroform directly into twins hearts. When a one-year-old triplet fell into Mengele’s hands, the child was “autopsied” while anesthetized but still alive.

Dwarfs and hunchbacks also captured Mengele’s fancy. These unfortunates were studied and then murdered. The flesh of some was boiled from bones that were subsequently sent to the Anthropological Museum in Berlin. There and other such places, the Nazi “research” continued.

1-6 November 1942: More than 170,000 Jews killed within one week at the Belzec, Auschwitz and Treblinka extermination camps.

2 November 1942: In the Lithuanian town of Marcinkance, 370 Jews who refuse to board trains for deportation bolt for the ghetto boundaries. In the melee that follows, 360 Jews and many guards are killed. Between deaths and successful escapes, not one Jew is left to board the trains.

In Zolochev (Ukraine), the chairman of the Jewish Council is murdered by Germans after refusing to sign a paper saying that the liquidation of the ghetto was necessitated by the spread of a typhus epidemic. 2,500 Zolochev Jews, including poet S. J. Imber are deported to Belzec extermination camp.

More than 100,000 Jews remaining in the towns and villages in the Bialystok region of Poland are arrested and deported to holding camps at Zambrow, Volkovysk, Kelbasin and Bogusze before being sent to the Auschwitz and Treblinka extermination camps.

6,000 Jews are deported from Siemiatycze (Poland)

Wolfram Sievers, head of Germany Ancestral Heritage Society, requests skeletons of 150 Jews. SS chief Heinrich Himmler okays a plan to establish a collection of Jewish skeletons and skulls at the Strasbourg Anatomical Institute in Occupied-France, near the Natzweiler-Struthol concentration camp.

3 November 1942: Jewish communities of Bilgoraj (Poland) and Olsztyn (Belorussia) are destroyed at the Belzec and Auschwitz extermination camps, respectively.

5 November 1942: An SS man in Chicano (Poland) politely asks a Jewish woman to hand him her baby. When she complies, the trooper smashes the baby to the street headfirst, killing the baby.

Jewish men from Stopnica (Poland) are sent to a slave-labor camp at Skarzsko-Kamienna, while 400 older people and children are shot in the town cemetery. 3,000 others are put on a forced labor march; many are shot along the way and survivors are sent to Treblinka.

Peasants in Siedliszcze (Poland) gather scythes in anticipation of the day’s roundup of Jews, for which they’ll be paid for each Jew caught.

600 Jews from Borislav (Poland) are deported naked to prevent resistance.

745 Jews, including 35 residents of the Rothschild Old Age Home, are deported from Paris (Occupied-France) to Auschwitz. After arrival, Jews awaiting entry into the gas chamber spy a truck loaded with corpses, but continue on to their deaths.

5-11 November 1942: 1,000 Greece-born Jews in and around Paris (Occupied-France) are seized and deported to Auschwitz.

6-7 November 1942: 1,000 Jews in Drancy (Occupied-France) spend the night on a railway siding crammed into boxcars. After the train deports for Auschwitz, two Jews squeeze to safety after bars in a small window is loosened. By 8 November, The Jews from Drancy, arrive by train to Auschwitz, where 227 are assigned to forced labor and 773 are gassed.

7 November-30 November 1942: More than 50 thousand Jews in Poland and the Ukraine are deported to extermination camps at Belzec, Treblinka and Majdanek.

10 November 1942: 6,000 Polish Jews who have been hiding in the forest since the spring of 1942 surrender after the Germans promise safe passage to a new Jewish ghetto; but they are betrayed.

By 10 January 1943: Most are transported to Treblinka and gassed. The remainder are sent to labor camps at nearby Sandomiers and Skarzysko Kamienna.

11 November 1942: German’s and Italians troops occupy Vichy, France.

Norwegian Protestant Bishops in Oslo publicly protest deportations of Norwegian Jews. They state in a letter to Norwegian Prime Minister Vidkun Quisling, “God does not differentiate between people.”

15 November 1942: The Soviet-based Jewish Antifascist Committee releases a report, “The Liquidation of the Jews in Warsaw.”

In an action led by Mayer List, two Jewish women partisans in Paris place two time bombs at a Nazi barracks windows at Rue de Raugrid. Which will kill several soldiers while they are eating breakfast.

16 November 1942: German troops occupy Tunisia. Before the Nazi campaign it was estimated this Jewish community was about 2,ooo and was considered a thriving community at the time.

Mid-November 1942: Official sources of the US, their Allies and neutral nations confirm the validity of the Gerhart Riegner cable regarding the “Final Solution.” Which the information was inaccurate for mass murder of Jews had been going on since June 1941; while the US government already knew for sometime what was occuring in Europe, nevertheless, the plight of what was actually occuring for the Jewish people became more into public view.

19 November 1942: Soviet forces began counterattack against Germans near Stalingrad (Russia).

24 November 1942: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, a founder and president of the World Jewish Congress, announces at a press conference that the US State Department has confirmed that Europe’s Jews are being slaughtered by the Nazi’s. Wise estimates that the Germans have already murdered two million Jews, which is an understatement.

By 8 December 1942, Rabbi Wise meets with other Jewish leaders and US President Franklin Roosevelt to discuss the recently revealed plight of European Jews.

25 November-19 December 1942: Jews in Piotrkow Tribunalski (Poland), who are lured from hiding places by Nazi promises of no retribution, are taken to a synagogue, locked inside and subjected to random gunfire by Ukrainians.

After three weeks trapped in a synagogue by hostile Ukrainian troops, 42 Jewish men are marched to the Rakow Forest and ordered to dig ditches. They resist and are shot. A few manage to escape.

Later in the day, 560 more Jews are led from the synagogue to the forest and murdered.

25 November 1942: Jewish women and children in Norway are arrested and deported to Auschwitz. More than 700 Norwegian Jews total been have sent to Auschwitz, although about 930 have been smuggled to Sweden.

27 November 1942- August 1943: More than 110,000 Poles are expelled from their homes in the fertile Zamose province so that the area can be resettled by ethnic Germans, SS troops and Ukrainians. More than 300 villages are affected. Thousands of Polish children are deported from the area to Belzec and other death camps.

December 1942: Nazis lock 1,000 Gypsies in a Lithuanian synagogue until the prisoners starve to death.

Jewish ghetto at Lvov (Ukraine) is liquidated.

A forced-labor camp is established at Plaszow (Poland).

A sonderkommando plan to escape from Auschwitz is discovered and the inmates are gassed.

2 December 1942: Jews in 30 counties hold a day of prayer and fasting for European Jews.

3 December 1942: Three young Jewish women who had escaped from a labor camp in Poznan (Poland) are forcibly taken to the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto and shot.

1,000 Jews from Plonsk (Poland) are killed at Auschwitz extermination camp.

Salomon Malkes, an official of the Lodz Ghetto, commits suicide after becoming despondent over the deportation of his mother.

4 December 1942: 300 hundred citizens of Slonim (Belorussia) are killed. Another 500 escape and join local partisan groups.

6 December 1942: SS men lock 23 Christian Poles in a barn at Stary Ciepielow (Poland) and burn them alive on suspicion of aiding “fugitive” Jews.

6-10 December 1942: Nazi marshal troops, armored vehicles and artillery to undertake a massive manhunt for more than 1,000 “fugitive” Jews in the Parczew (Poland) Forest.

7 December 1942: German troops enter the Polish village of Bialka and murder 96 villagers suspected of shielding Jews fleeing the Anti-Jewish Aktion in the nearby Parczew Forest.

US State Department official G. Robert Borden Reams, and “expert” on the Jews in the Division of European Affairs, advises that the US government remain silent concerning details of the Holocaust.

US and their Allies become upset because Bulgarian Jewish children may be allowed in “Palestine” based on Jewish agency appeals and those within the “Palestine” government.

9 December 1942: German troops in Tunis (Tunisia) seize 128 Jews and march them to a labor camp. One young Jew who drops from exhaustion is shot and killed.

Christian Century, an American Protestant journal, attacks Rabbi Stephen Wise, claiming he lied about the Holocaust in his recent press conference. Christian Century further argues that even if what Wise has to say is true, to make the facts of the Holocaust public serves no purpose.

10 December 1942: A transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.

At Wola Przybyslavska (Poland) near the Parczew Forest, Nazis shoot seven Poles accused of aiding Jews.

11-12 December 1942: Jewish inmates of a labor camp at Lutsk (Ukraine) are informed by a Christian woman that the camp is about to be liquidated. The Jews quickly plan a revolt.

The Jewish prisoners arm themselves with knives, bricks, iron bars, acid, several revolvers and sawed-off shotguns, then revolt against the Germans and Ukrainians. The uprising is crushed.

13 December 1942: German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels complains in his diary about Italy’s halfhearted persecution of the Jews.

Joseph Goebbels

Joseph Goebbels was the most ardent member of Hitler’s inner circle. Cunning and amoral, he was a mastermind manipulator whose control of German media rallied the populace to the cause of Nazism and threw gasoline on the fires of Anti-Semitism.

Paul Joseph Goebbels was born in the Rhineland in 1897 to parents of the lower middle class. Crippled by polio while a small boy, he devoted himself to the development of his intellect. He earned a doctorate in literature and philosophy in 1921 and soon after joined the Nazi party. A failed novelist with grandiose ideas, Goebbels was initially more fond of Nazi ideology than Hitler. He soon fell under Hitler’s spell, however and became, after Hitler himself, the No.1 proponent of the “Fuhrer myth” of infallibility. For his loyalty, Goebbels was named minister of propaganda when Hitler assumed power in 1933.

Goebbels prohibited Jewish publishing activity and demanded the deionization of Jews through Nazi propaganda, feature films, faked newsreels, phony documentaries, fabricated news stories, radio plays and choreographed Anti-Semitic demonstrations. Under his guidance, “Jew” became synonymous throughout the Reich with “enemy” and “vermin.”

Goebbels and his wife, Magda, committed suicide in the Fuhrerbunker on 1 May 1945, shortly before they poisoning their six children.

As to this method of propaganda still being used today, it is still a common practice by the US government towards not just the Jews, but Islam, to further the over boiling kettle of Islamophobia and any group or country that disagrees with them. To even go as far as inserting propaganda into foreign media sources. Even as Goebbels, dismissed the cruelty perpetrated on mercilessly towards the Jews, the US has continued this legacy towards Jews and Muslims, alike; which is more visually seen by some in places like Israel (“The Wind and the Lion War” by the US), Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan to name a few.

15 December 1942: Faked and upbeat postcards messages arrive at Jewish homes in Holland from friends and relatives interred at Auschwitz and the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto.

16 December 1942: A Jewish ghetto is established in Kharkov (Ukraine).

Germany decrees that German Gypsies must be deported to Auschwitz and destroyed. Exceptions include Wehrmact soldiers, important war-industry workers and those who are “socially adapted.”

Pressure among the US’s allies, Jewish groups, the Anglican Church, from certain press agencies and from the Polish government-in-exile persuades the allied governments to publish their official recognition of atrocities in Poland. These allied nations, excluding the US-officially condemns the Nazis’ “bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination.” They vow to punish those responsible. Several US State Department officials try to block the declaration. All previous and following declarations neglect to mention the Jews.

‘Accepting the US governments’ position that the Jews being massacred by the Germans can only helped by a total and unconditional Allied victory over Germany, the American Press continues to treat the Holocaust as just another “war story” and is unwilling to discuss the systematic annihilation of the Jews.

Given the Allied governments’ knowledge of the Holocaust at this time, waiting until the Allied Armed Forces have achieved a total victory over the Germans indicates that the Allied governments’ have accepted the probability that the majority of European Jews will be killed before the Germans can be stopped.'-

Jewish inmates at the labor camp at Kruszyna (Poland) near Radom, attack guards with knives and fists. Six prisoners are killed and four escape.

18 December 1942: When Jewish forced laborers at Kruszyna (Poland) refuse to board trucks, more than 100 of them are shot.

British Ambassador to the Vatican Francis d’Arcy Osborne meets with Pope Pious XII “does not see that his silence is highly damning to the Holy See.”

22 December 1942: Nazi troops gathered at a coffeehouse in Krakow (Poland) are attacked by partisans. Several SS officers as well as two partisans, including the partisan leader are killed during the attack.

A group of Jews chop up furniture to use as fuel in the Krakow Ghetto, about the winter of 1942. (National Archives in Krakow, Poland)

24 December 1942: Germans mount a second hunt in Poland’s Parczew Forest for “fugitive” Jews.

25 December 1942: Four prisoners who escape Sobibor extermination camp are shot dead after they are betrayed by local villagers.

28 December 1942: Two Jews are shot for mutiny at the Stalowa Wola (Poland) slave labor camp.

Dr. Carl Clauberg (pictured at left) begins his sterilization experiments on women prisoners at Auschwitz.

31 December 1942: By this date, the German Reich has deported more than two million Jews to death camps. Hundreds of thousands more Jews have been murdered by Einsatzgruppen and police battalions.

The Family Hostage Law is announced in Occupied France under its provisions, alleged fugitive “terrorists” who do not surrender to German authorities can expect their male relatives killed, female relatives sent to work camps and children sent to special schools for political reeducation.

Thea Borzuk Slawner poses with her mother on the occasion of her second birthday party, which was celebrated behind the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto. Despite living in appalling conditions, Warsaw's Jews spared no effort to retain their humanity. Religious and family celebrations became symbols of Jewish resistance. Thea and her mother escaped the ghetto just prior to the 1943 Resistance uprising. They survived the war, living among gentiles under assumed names, which they where very lucky; many did not survived by being housed unusually among Christians for they where not wanted by the Nazi‘s unless they aided Jews; while they would claim to be helping them, several later through deception, Nazi Collaboration and in some cases fear (of being caught by the Nazis), also murdered Jews using various methods.

1943: Heinrich Himmler is named Reich minister of the interior.

Pope Pious XII announces that the Vatican can help oppressed people via “our prayer.”

A Nazi collaborationist group in Denmark is established, as well as a collaborationist Ukrainian volunteer unit.

Joseph Tiso, Slovakia prime minister an ally to Hitler, briefly halts deportations of Slovakian Jews.

The first issue of the Anti-Semitic Archiv fur Judenfragen (Archive for the Jewish Questions) is published in Germany.

January 1943: As the year begins, 10,000 Jews are performing forced labor in factories throughout Germany.

The last 27 Jews in Bilgoraj (Poland) are flushed from hiding and killed.

Nearly 870 children, invalids, and medical personnel are sent from Holland to Auschwitz.

An SS instruction sheet for implementation of death sentences at extermination camps decrees that executions by hanging are to be carried out by designated prisoners; payment will be three cigarettes.

Jewish Resistance members in the Warsaw Ghetto begin to split into 22 groups. They construct shelters and bunkers and even create tunnels that lead to the gentile portion of the city.

A Putsch planned by some German generals at Stalingrad (Russia) and intended to overthrow Hitler never comes off. Leading German opponents of Hitler and the Nazis-mostly conservative political opponents -conspire to overthrow Hitler’s Reich. They feel Hitler has overreached himself and that the campaign has developed into a dangerous two-front endeavor. Despite their opposition to Hitler, his major antagonists are anti-Semitic and still want the Jews to disappear. They conclude that the Jews are a “calamitous influence…on the nation” and that the Jews are “a danger to the German nation.”

Germans murder 61,000 Jews at Auschwitz, Treblinka and Belzec during this month alone.

Te US State Department, which knows much about the Holocaust, continues to block attempts to transfer Jewish children to America.

Choiceless Choice

The gas chamber and crematorium II - the furnaces. (SS photograph, 1943.)

“One wants to live,” wrote Salmen Lewental. Those words are part of a notebook buried and found near the ruins of Birkenau’s crematorium III. Selected for labor when he entered Auschwitz on 10 December 1942, Lewental was put in the Sonderkommando a month later and condemned to work in the gas chambers and crematoria. He lasted long enough to join the Sonderkommando uprising on 7 October 1944. The date of his death is unknown.

At one point in Lewental’s notebook, he imagines someone asking him, “Why do you do such ignoble work?” Beyond answering that “one wants to live,” there is no good reply, for what good choice good choices did Lewental have?

Nazi power repeatedly forced defenseless people to make what Holocaust scholar Lawrence L. Langer calls “choiceless choice.” Such choices, he says, do not “reflect options between life and death, but between one form of ‘abnormal’ response and another, both imposed by a situation that was in no way of the victim’s own choosing.”

Such was Lewental’s miserable situation. He did not volunteer for the Sonderkommando any more than he chose deportation. Lewental was like millions of Holocaust victims. In Auschwitz, his “choices”-dying by suicide, dying by resisting or dying as a Sonderkommando-were essentially “choiceless.”

1 January 1943: Jews in the Netherlands are no longer allowed to have bank accounts. All Jewish money is put instead into a central account.

3 January 1943: Polish President Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz requests that Pope Pious XII publicly denounce German atrocities against the Jews. Pious remains silent concerning both the German slaughter of the Polish Jews as well as the German attacks against Polish Catholics.

4 January 1943: The SS administration office instructs all concentration camp commandants to send human hair taken from Jewish women to the firm of Alex Zink, Filzfabtik AG at Roth, Germany near Nuremberg for processing.

5 January 1943: The Vught (Holland) concentration camp is established.

5-7 January 1943: Thousands of Jews are murdered at Lvov (Ukraine).

6 January 1943: The Jews of Lubaczow (Poland) are killed at the Belzec extermination camp

Five hundred Jews hiding in Pocono (Poland) are murdered by the Germans after being coaxed out of hiding with a promise of rail transport to a neutral country.

7-24 January 1943: 20,000 Jews from Germany, Belgium, Holland and Poland are gassed at Auschwitz.

9 January 1943: The British Magazine New Statesman urges that Jewish refugees be allowed at least temporarily into all nations, including 40,000 into “Palestine.”

Saving the Jews and Muslims

Even prior to 1943, as to the “Palestine’s" government position towards what was occurring to the European Jewish situation, was the government had been trying to give aid in every manner possible, but were being barred, muffled and threatened with murder by the US government at every turn; to the point of even trying to obliterate the very exsistance of the "Palestine" government. Well, into the mid-1960’s former US President Lyndon Johnson called insultingly the “Palestine” government, “rats...that should be exterminated."

There is even an instance of the then “Palestine’s" government’s intention of sending armed military into Europe to aid and defend the Jewish people from annihilation by the Nazis, but again, were stopped by threats of reprisal from the US government.

As to the Muslim populace’s position, was to aid and defend the Jews was of utmost importance, even trying to help the refugee ship’s entering the country, and this is contrary to the fabrications that were being said to the Jews.

As to the reasoning behind calling the government of the country “Palestine’s” government at that time (as the name is said to have came from an external source), was the US’s belief in separation of religions within the country itself as well as the countries people or trying to create a divide between Judaism and Islam as to the US’s descrimination towards these two religions and continue their long war towards the country, also in an attempt to weaken the country internally and too create false dissention between the two monotheistic religions; which has failed as it should have done and should have never occured from the start.

As to the year previously, family members of the “Palestine’s" government had been deported from Augsburg (Germany) and gassed at Belzec extermination camp.

10 January 1943: 400 Jews who resist the German overseer at the Kopernik camp in Minsk Mazowiexki (Poland) are burned alive in their barracks.

12-21 January 1943: 20,000 Jews are deported from Zambrow (Poland) to Auschwitz.

13 January 1943: 15,000 Jews are deported from Radom (Poland) to Treblinka.

14 January 1943: When the Jewish council and the Jewish police in Lomza (Poland) refuse to provide the Gestapo with 40 Jews, Gestapo agents make the selection and includes two Council members. A further 8,000 Lomza Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

Dead man lying in the street in the Warsaw ghetto, probably dead of starvation. (Courtesy Yad Vashem)

“Streets full, full…Selling. Begging each other. Crying. Hungry.”

-Jan Karski, witness to the Warsaw Ghetto, 1943.

14-24 January 1943: US President Franklin Roosevelt and an Allie representative meet at Casablanca (Morocco), to discuss the future of an allied invasion of Western Europe. News of the meeting buoys the spirits of the Jews, who hope the Nazi campaign may soon be over.

Roosevelt, though proposes to French North African official General Nogues and later to leader of the Free French Forces, General Girand, that the French government of North Africa should discriminate against local Jews just as Hitler did in the 1930’s. Roosevelt specifically states, twice-once to Nogues and separately to Girand-that “the number of Jews engaged in the practice of the professions…should be definitely limited to the percentage that the Jewish population in North Africa bears to the whole of the North African population.” US President Roosevelt adds that limiting the number of Jews in professions “would further eliminate the specific and understandable complaints which the Germans bore towards the Jews in Germany…”

15 January 1943: A non-Jewish Polish woman and her one-year-old child are shot at the Pilica River in Poland because the woman has aided Jews.

77 Jews leap from a deportation train traveling east from Belgium. Most are hunted down and killed by German and Flemish SS troops.

Thousands of Jews at Zaslaw (Poland) concentration camp are deported to Belzec extermination camp.

17 January 1943: Berlin Bishop Konrad Graf von Preysing is the only top German Catholic prelate who consistently opposes the German government’s Jewish policies. Preysing threatens Pope Pius XII, saying he will resign unless the collaborative behavior of the other German Bishops ceases.

18 January 1943: Jewish deportees from Belgium arrive at Auschwitz, where 1087 are gassed. After a four-month break, Germans resume deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto (Poland). Warsaw Jews react with their first acts of resistance, expressed in brutal street fighting. 1,000 Jews are executed in the streets and 6,000 are deported to Treblinka extermination camp. An elderly, blind Jewish man is shot by an SS man because he is unable to walk without a guide.

Nobel Prize winning Polish émigré poet Czeslaw Milosz (right)- a righteous Christian- condemns Anti-Semitism and nationalism as “ills that like cancer were consuming Poland.” In his poem, “Campo dei Fiori” Milosz laments from Warsaw in 1943-and he’s being literal, not figurative-that the carousel’s carnival and the laughing crowds in the Catholic area of Warsaw drown out the sounds of the Germans shooting Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.

19-22 January 1943: 6,000 Jews from Warsaw are murdered at Treblinka extermination camp.

20 January 1943: In a letter to Reich minister of transport, SS chief Heinrich Himmler requests additional trains so that the “removal of Jews” from across Europe can be speeded up.

21 January 1943: SS men in the Warsaw Ghetto fire into windows and toss grenades. The Jews resist and the Germans soon withdrawal, leaving behind 12 dead.

21-24 January 1943: 2,000 Jews from theresienstadt, (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto are deported to Auschwitz. Some 1,760 are gassed on arrival, including patients from the Jewish mental hospital at Apeldoorn (Holland), as well as about 50 of the hospital’s nurses who accompany the patients to lessen their terror.

22 January 1943: The Jewish Ghetto at Grodno (Belorussia) is liquidated.

Jewish girls at the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp light candles and sing songs for Shabbat.

A death train that originated in Grodno (Poland), on 17 January erupts in violence at the Treblinka extermination camp when 1,000 Jews armed with boards, knives and razors attack guards. By morning 10,000 Jews and guards who had been on the train are dead, killed by Treblinka SS troops armed with machine guns and grenades.

22-27 January 1943: During operation Tiger in Marseilles (France) Nazis seize more than 4,000 Jews for deportation. At nearby La Accates, 29 Jewish children at La Rose Orphanage. Their guardian Alice Solomon insists on remaining with them.

By 23 March, Alice Solomon who refused to leave the Jewish children two months before, her and the children are all gassed as Sobibor extermination camp.

23 January 1943: Italian authorities refuse to cooperate with Germans in deportation of French Jews living in zones of France under Italian control.

27 January 1942: The Eighth USAAF (United States Army Air Force) mounts the first all-American air raid on Germany, at Wilhelmshaven.

28-31 January 1943: 10,000 Jews from Pruzhany (Belorussia) are deported to Auschwitz.

29 January 1943: Germans evacuate 15 Poles at the village of Wierzbica for aiding three Jews. One of the victims is a two-year-old girl.

30 January 1943: Ernst Kaltenbrunner is named by Hitler to succeed the late Reinhard Heydrich as chief Reichssicherheitshauptant (Reich Security Main Office).

February 1943: As the month begins, 40,000 Jews are hiding in the forests of the Volhynia region of Poland. Before the year is out, 37,000 will perish from hunger and execution.

The slave-labor camp at Chrzanow (Poland) is dissolved, with 1,000 laborers sent to the extermination camp at Auschwitz.

A young Jewish woman at Treblinka, stripped naked by her captors, grabs a rifle from a Ukrainian guard and kills two Germans and wounds a third before being subdued. She is subsequently tortured to death.

German authorities direct Hungary to provide 10,000 Jews for copper-mine slave-labor at Bor (Yugoslavia).

By September 1943, after refusing for months, the Hungarian government accedes to German demands for Jews to be used as slave-labor at copper-mine’s at Bor (Yugoslavia).

4 February 1942: In Lvov (Ukraine), German authorities assemble 12 surviving members of the ghetto’s Jewish Council. When two do not appear and others refuse to comply with German orders, four of the members are murdered. Six are sent to the labor camp at Janowska (Ukraine) and the two who had refused to appear are later discovered in the non-Jewish section of Lvov and shot.

5 February 1943: At Bialystok (Poland), a Jews named Yitzhak Malmed resists deportation by throwing sulphuric acid into the face of a German police officer, who reacts by accidentally shooting and killing a Gestapo officer nearby. Malmed escapes but surrenders later when the Germans threaten to execute 5,000 Jews in retribution unless he turns himself in. He is publicly hanged. His body is displayed at the entrance to the Bialystok Ghetto as a warning to wood-be activists.

5-12 February 1943: Following Jewish resistance, a combination of street Aktion at Bialystok (Poland) and camp murders at Treblinka takes the lives of nearly 20,000 Jews.

6 February 1943: A marathon roll call at Auschwitz forces inmates to stand motionless in snow without food for over 13 hours. Many die on their feet and others who are too weak to dash back to the barracks at day’s end are sent to the gas chamber.

SS chief Heinrich Himmler receives a report about the quantities of items taken from Jews at Auschwitz and other camps in the Lublin area. Cited items include 155,000 women’s coats, 132,000 men’s shirts and more than 66,000 pounds of women’s hair.

8 February 1943: the Soviet Army overruns a key German garrison at Kursk (Russia).

8-26 February 1943: A German Aktion against Soviet partisans at Pripet Marshes (Ukraine), captures eight machine guns, 172 rifles, 14 pistols, 150 hand grenades and 8 land mines. German troops also make off with more than 550 horses, 9,578 head of cattle, 844 pigs, 5,700 sheep and 233 tons of grain. 2,219 Jews killed outright; 7,378 received “special treatment” (deportation and extermination). German losses in the action are two dead and 12 wounded.

10 February 1943: A cable devised by several US State Department officials is sent to the US legation in Bern (Switzerland). The cable suggests that the American consul in Bern should no longer transmit information about Jewish atrocities “to private persons in the United States.” The cable is sent by Breckinridge Long, Ray Atherton, James Dunn, Elbridge Durbrow and John Hickerson.

Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau’s staff will later describe the cable of 10 February as “the most vicious document we have ever read,” designed “by diabolical men” and intended to suppress information on the “Final Solution.” “We don’t shoot {Jews]. We let other people shoot, them and let them starve.”

Secretary Morgenthau observes that “when you get through with it, the [State Department’s] attitude to date is no different from Hitler’s attitude.”

Secretary Morgenthau’s assistant Randolph Paul, describes the State Department officials involved in America’s refugee policy as an “underground movement…to let the Jews be killed.”

11 February 1943: Of 998 Jews deported from Occupied-France on this date, only ten will be alive by 1945. Including among the 998 are 123 children under the age of 12,sent away without parents. 802 are gassed immediately upon arrival at Auschwitz.

12 February 1943: Three French Jews escape Auschwitz-bound train at the French frontier, but are recaptured and forced to continue the journey.

13 February 1943: Russian-born artist Aizik Feder, a onetime student of Matisse, is one of 1,000 Jews deported from Drancy (France) to the Auschwitz extermination camp. He is among the approximately 690 who are gassed upon arrival.

Amon Leopold Goeth becomes commandant of the Plazcow concentration camp.

The Jews of Djerba (Tunisia), are forced to pay ten million francs to the German authorities.

The New York Times reports that the Romanian government is offering to transport 70,000 Jews anywhere the US and their Allies wish. A departure tax to cover the transportation costs is all that is required. The US State Department dismiss the offer. One of the US allies rejects the offer, suggesting it is a piece of blackmail that marks the start of Germany and her satellites in Southern Europe unloading all of their unwanted nationals (read Jews) on other countries. ‘As for “Palestine” it is out of the question as a destination.’ The only way to help the Jews, the Allies maintain, is by an Allied victory.’


-word found on a scrap of paper left behind in the cell of a resistance leader on the day of her execution, 1943.

16 February 1943: A small group of “Palestinian” Jews, the “Bergson Boys,” agitate the US to try to help European Jews; their strong activist stance upsets many main-line American Jewish organizations, which fear that these tactics will stimulate American Anti-Semitism-already at its highest level in history. They Boys run a full-page advertisement: “For Sale to Humanity/70,000 Jews/Guaranteed Human Beings at $50 a Piece.” This advertisement in The New York Times offers Americans the opportunity to ransom 70,000 Romanian Jews.

9 March, The Bergson Boys pageant, “We Will Never Die,” opens in New York City. More than 100,000 Americans witness the show, including many government officials. The show starred such notable Jewish-American actors as Edward G. Robinson (Pictured), Paul Muni and Sylvia Sydney.

Theodor Eicke, inspector of concentration camps dies in a plane crash.

20 February 1943: Crematorium II is complete at Auschwitz-Birkenau. It can burn 1,440 bodies per day.

22 February 1943: The Jewish community at Stanislawow (Ukraine) is annihilated.

Bulgaria signs an agreement with Germany to allow deportations of 20,000 Jews from former Yugoslav region of Macedonia and former Greek region of Thrace, both now controlled by Bulgaria. About 11,000 Jews will actually be deported (in March).

In Lyons, (Occupied-France), Italian military authorities order the local police chief to nullify a German order for the deportation of several hundred Jews to the Auschwitz extermination camp.

One Janine Putter, was a refugee child from France, who got to light one of the memorial candles at a prayer service held in New York’s Mecca Temple (now called, “The New York City Center”) on 22 February 1943.

More than 3,000 children from 518 religious schools in the New York area attended the event to protest the treatment of children in the Nazi occupied Europe.

23 February 1943: The 16th (Lithuanian) Division of the Soviet Army, which includes many Jews, attacks a superior German force in the Ukraine.

24 February 1943: A ghetto is established in Salonika (Greece).

27 February 1943: SS troops begin to round up Jewish factor workers in Berlin (Germany) to be sent to camps and killing centers in the East.

27 February-early March 1943: Those Jewish workers rounded up in Berlin who have Christian spouses are released after their spouses and children publicly protest their arrest at the Berlin Gestapo headquarters on Rosenstrasse. The release is order by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and later approved by Hitler himself, who seems to fear public disorder.

March 1943: Jews are deported from Poznan (Poland) to the Lodz Ghetto. A few are assigned to work in a shoe factory, but the rest are marked for death in the East.

In the Warsaw Ghetto, three orphan children-12-year-old Matti Drobless, his 14-year-old sister and his 9-year-old brother-escape through the city’s sewer system.

Nearly 5,700 Jews are deported from Westerbork (Holland), transit camp to the Sobibor extermination camp.

Thousands of Jews are shot at Minsk (Belorussia); 50 escape and join a partisan group.

The Bulgarian Army assists the Nazi deportation of Jews from Macedonia and Thrace to extermination camps in Poland.

Extermination activity is temporary halted at the Chelmno (Poland) extermination camp. But by 23 June 1944, operations resume at the Chelmno (Poland) extermination camp.

March-July 1943: The SS mounts ongoing effort at the Treblinka extermination camp to eliminate evidence of mass murder.

Early March 1943: Jews from Thrace and Macedonia are arrested and transported by train and than barge to the Treblinka extermination camp.

1 March 1943: 100 Jews from Paderborn (Germany) are deported to Auschwitz.

Exterior view of old Madison Square Garden, New York City, 1943.

A massive “Stop Hitler Now” rally takes place in New York City’s Madison Square Garden. As American Jews held the mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the US government into helping the Jews of Europe; not realizing due to US fantical media censorship, that the US was allies with Nazi Germany. Even prior to the Holocaust, the US was considered historically documented by a global consensus as the most Anti-Semitic country.

4 March 1943: Noted painter Hermann Lismann is deported to Majdanek extermination camp.

5 March 1943: About 13,000 Jews are exterminated near Khmel’nik (Ukraine) Ghetto. Shmuel Zalcman, chairman of the Khmel’nik Jewish Council is dragged to his death behind a horse-drawn cart because of his contacts with local Jewish associates.

6 March 1943: 20 young Jews escape Swieciany (Ukraine) Ghetto, to nearby woods.

7 March 1943: The Jewish community at Radoszkowice (Belorussia) is destroyed.

8-13 March 1943: Jews apart of the Soviet Army force that mounts a massive offensive against the Germans at Sokolov (Russia). Three hundred Jewish casualties, including 140 fatalities, are tallied by the battle’s end.

10 March 1943: The SS demands the deportation of all Bulgarian Jews to Poland, but the Bulgarian government resists thanks to the ambivalence of the nation’s king as well as protests by clergy, farmers and intellectuals. Despite the protests, some Bulgarian Jews are exiled to labor camps at Radomir and Samovar (Bulgaria). However, none are deported and Bulgaria’s Jewish population will continue to increase throughout the remainder of the German campaign.

13 March 1943: A bomb plot is attempted against Hitler, but explosives disguised by General Henning von Treschow as bottles of brandy fail to explode aboard Hitler’s private plane.

The SS establishes Ostindustrie GmbH (East Industry, Inc.) in Poland to organize and exploit slave labor in around Lublin. The project is supervised by Odilo Globocnik.

Wilhelm Boger

Wilhelm Boger was generally considered the cruelest of guards at Auschwitz. Witnesses at his trial claimed that his hands often became coated with the blood of the victims of his sadistic methods of torture.

Borger as early as 16-years-old was a Nazi youth and came from lower middle class petty beginnings and subsequence scrapes with the law and of an immoral character before being a guard at Auschwitz.

After the Nazi campaign it took an extensive period of time to get Bolger in court to also even convict him, but it finally did occur and he died in 1977 in prison.

But the horrors contributed to Borger are beyond the accountability of even insanity, due to his chamber of unspeakable horrors he inflicted upon his helpless victims at Auschwitz.

Frau Braun a witnesses for the prosecution against Boger had the following to say after the trial:

"I almost fainted the first time she entered the courtroom and saw Wilhelm Boger himself. During the questions meant to establish his identity, I came close to utter collapse, having to face this now old man in civilian clothes, who stared into me eyes with cold rage."

Frau Braun had been his private secretary and stenographer chosen to observe daily and take notes while he “interrogated” prisoners. Sit was her job to sit beside Boger daily, attending him not only in his office, but in that “chamber,” as we would term the place of torture.

Not all testimony at Boger’s trial was as cut and dried, sever judges acknowledged that "the possibilities of verifying the witness declarations were very limited." This situation was underscored during the trial when former inmate Rudolf Kauer suddenly repudiated earlier statements about his one-time SS masters.

In pre-trial interrogation he claimed to have seen defendant Wilhelm Boger brutally beat a naked Polish woman with a horse whip, ripping off one breast and flooding a room with blood.
This is a drawing of the “Borger Swing” an apparatus for torture that Boger use to call his “talking machine.”

14 March 1943: 2,000 Jews in Krakow (Poland) are assembled for deportation. Before the train leaves for Auschwitz, hundreds of small children and elderly people are murdered in the streets and in ditches outside of town. Patients at Krakow’s Jewish hospital are murdered by Gestapo agents.

15 March 1943: Deportations of Jews in Salonika (Greece) to Auschwitz begins. The first group numbers 2,800.

Trude Neumann, a former mental patient in a hospital near Vienna and daughter of Theodor Herzl (pictured) the founder of Zionism, dies of starvation at the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia).

16 March 1943: A much-feared SS trooper is murdered in Lvov (Ukraine) by a Jewish man named Kotnowski.

17 March 1943: More than 1,200 Jews from Lvov (Ukraine) are killed at Piaski (Poland), as retribution for the 16 March murder of an SS trooper by a Jewish man. 11 Jewish policemen are hanged in the ghetto, 1,000 Jewish slave laborers are executed and an additional 200 Jews are murdered.

18 March 1943: The hiding place of Dr. Julian Charin, age 30 of Lapy (Ukraine) is betrayed by the Nazis and Charin is shot.

At Auschwitz, 26-year-old underground fighter Lonka Kozibrodska dies of typhus.

This doll belonged to a child living in the Krakow (Poland) Ghetto. The doll’s owner, Zofia Burowska, recovered it after the Nazi campaign from non-Jews who saved it for her. It was especially important to Zofia because it had been made specifically for her. Toys such as this doll were often the only links Jewish children had to a normal childhood or a symbol of hope. Another cherished possession of a different child, was a stuffed bear and a stuffed dog.

20 March 1943: At Czestochowa (Poland) on the eve of Purim, more than 100 Jewish physicians, engineers and lawyers as well as their families are taken to a cemetery by Nazis and shot. Victims include 56-year-old gynecologist Dr. Kruza Gruenwald, 30-year-old general practitioner Dr. Irena Horowicz and 44-year-old neurologist Dr. Bernhard Epstein.

21 March 1943: During Purim, 2,300 Jews from Skopje (Yugoslavia) are deported to Auschwitz.

Eight members of the Jewish intelligentsia are taken from Piotrkow (Poland) to a Jewish cemetery and shot, along with the cemetery’s caretaker and his wife; the engineer these killings to total ten, in macabre reference to the story of the ten sons of Haman-a crucial character in the Purim story.

At Random (Poland) Jewish physicians are removed from the ghetto and executed at nearby Szydlowiec.

22 march 1943: Crematorium IV opens at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

25 March 1943: 1,000 Jews are deported from Marseilles (Occupied-France), to the Sobibor extermination camp; previously on 23 March, 4,000 Jews from the same city, was later interned briefly at Drancy and then deported to Sobibor.

The Jewish community from Zolkiew (Poland) is marched to the Borek Forest and executed.

An anonymous letter written by a non-Jewish German citizen, critical of Nazi ghett0-liquidation techniques is forwarded to Hitler’s Chancellery.

Spring 1943: Nazi kill squads have so far murdered almost two million Jews in Eastern Europe.

The Germans force Jewish prisoners to burn the bodies of 600,000 Jews exterminated at Belzec.

April 1943: A concentration camp is established at Bergen-Belsen (Germany).

Germans launch an offensive against Jewish partisans active in the Parczew Forest (Poland).

Resistance derails a death train in Belgium.

Pope Pius XII complains that Jews are demanding and ungrateful.

Shoes and clothing of prisoners who were gassed in Auschwitz

The Nazis made a considerable effort to exploit their victims economically and this included seizing the property that could be used towards the Nazi campaign effort. At Auschwitz, confiscated property was kept in Effektenkammern (storerooms of movables). The inmates called the area “Canada” because of the sheer amount of loot stored there, which they associated with the riches of Canada.

5 April 1943: 300 Jews from Soly and Smorgon (Belorussia) are transported by rail westward to Bilna (Lithuania). En route, the captives shatter the railcars’ wire-reinforced glass and attempt to flee, but are shot to death by guards. The survivors are later shot at Ponary, southwest of Vilna, by German and Lithuanian SS troops. About 4,000 Jews from in and around Vilna are trucked to Ponary, slaughtered and dumped into mass graves. Jews arriving at the Ponary station by rail from Oszmiana and Swieciany (Lithuania) resist with revolvers, knives and their bare hands; a few dozen escapes to Vilna and the rest are shot. During the massacre, a Lithuanian policeman is wounded by Jews and an SS sergeant is hospitalized after being stabbed in the back and in the head.

At Treblinka extermination camp station, the final train brings Jews from Macedonia arrives’ all aboard are gassed immediately.

8-9 April 1943: 1,000 Jews are executed near Ternopol (Ukraine).

14 April 1943: The slave-labor camp at Siedlce (Poland) is dissolved.

A paper, Program for the Rescue of Jews from Nazi Occupied Europe is summated to the Bermuda Conference by Joint Emergency Committee for European Jewish Affairs.

By 19 April 1943, The Bermuda Conference of the US and one other Allie is held in Hamilton (Bermuda), which takes no meaningful action to help the Jews in Europe. Before the meeting, representatives from both countries had agreed not to discuss immigration of Jews to the participating countries nor ship food to Jewish refugees in German-occupied Europe.

Gerhart Riegner, World Jewish Congress representative in Geneva, suggests that money be deposited in a Swiss account to be paid after the Nazi campaign to enable the 70,000 Romanian Jews previously offered to the US and their Allies to immigrate to “Palestine.” This comes to be known as the Riegner Plan.

17-18 April 1943: Hitler meets with the Hungarian regent, Admiral Miklos Horthy at Klessheim Castle, near Salzburg (Austria) to encourage the deportation of Hungarian Jews. Horthy refuses to acquiesce.

18 April 1943: Word leaks into the Warsaw Ghetto of German plans for the ghetto’s destruction.

Nearly 3,500 Jews from six Polish towns are transported to Jaw row (Poland) and shot. Resisters who escape to nearby forests are led by Artur Henner and Henry Gleich; most are subsequently be killed by German troops.

19 April 1943: The Warsaw Ghetto uprising begins. More than 2,000 soldiers-SS, regular army and foreign troops-invade the ghetto. The attempt to liquidate the ghetto (40,000 inhabitants) on the eve of Passover, but about 700 Jews revolt. The Jews arm themselves with about 17 rifles, 500 pistols, several thousand grenades and Molotov Cocktails. The Jewish underground will fight the Nazis until the middle of May. As to the US and their Allies will neither publicize events not try to help.

The bodies of Jewish resisters lie in front of the ruins of a building where they were shot by the SS during the suppression of the Warsaw ghetto uprising. The original German caption reads: “Bandits killed in battle.” Photo credit: Poland National Archives.

20 April 1943: In the Warsaw Ghetto, Germans set fire to houses block by block and shoot all who emerge from building, bunker and sewers. Many Jews travel across rooftops and continue to fight. Patients at Warsaw’s Czyst Hospital are murdered by German troops.

During this time the Polish underground only gives minimal help. The US continues their stance on no Jewish immigration nor ship food to Jewish refugees in German-occupied Europe, to neither publicize events. (see 19 April 1943)

Popular French film star Harry Baur dies in Berlin after being tortured by the Gestapo.

22 April 1943: The Jews of Amersfoort (Holland) are deported.

25 April 1943: As fire set by Germans consume the Warsaw Ghetto, a German Jew named Hoch desperately leaps from a fourth-floor window, breaking both arms and his spine.

Jews, mostly women captured during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. This was the position one was usually forced to take, just prior to being shot.

Late April 1943: Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto begins to falter as bunkers are broached by German troops. As artillery bombardment hit’s the ghetto it proves to be costly for the Jewish inhabitants.

27 April 1943: American poet Ezra Pound continues his Anti-Semitic broadcasts from Italy.

He calls the Jews “rats,” “bedbugs,‘ “vermin,” “worms,” “bacilli” and parasites“ ‘who constitute an overwhelming “power of putrefaction.’ (see 9 May 1942) Which it should be known, similar insults have occurred from Pound’s government during and since 1943 towards both Jews and Muslims.
(see article: "Saving the Jews," for example)

28 April 1943: An official SS telegram instructs the administration at Auschwitz to prepare 120 women for medical experiments.

29 April 1943: Near Krakow (Poland), Jewish women attack their male SS guards while being transferred from one prison to another. Two women escape but most of the others are killed. In Krakow proper, Jewish ‘Resistance fighters incarcerated since December 1942 are trucked to the Plaszow (Poland) concentration camp. Most are killed after breaking out of the truck.

30 April 1943: 2,000 Jews deported from Wlodawa (Poland) to Sobibor attack the death camps SS guards on arrival at the unloading ramp. All of the Jews are killed by SS machine guns and grenades.

May 1943: SS-Gruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stoop completes his official his official written chronicle of the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto: The Stoop Report.

Breckinridge Long and his supporters in the US State Department including Borden Reams and Robert Alexander; delay the license to transfer Jewish funds intended to be used to allow the escape of 70,000 Jews from Romania (The Riegner Plan). These US State Department officials worry that the Riegner Plan, “might actually succeed.”

Abrasha Blum, an organizer of armed resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto and a member of the Coordinating Committee of Jewish Organization, is shot by Germans after enduring confinement and torture.

1 May 1943: Many members of the Brody (Ukraine) Jewish community are killed at the Majdanek extermination camp.

Jewish writers and artists inspired by the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, gather in Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto for an evening of poetry, with the hopeful theme “Spring in Yiddish Literature.”

The US and their Allies began to push the Germans from Tunisia.

German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, reacting to the Jewish Warsaw Ghetto revolt, notes in his diary, “Heavy engagements are being fought there which led even to the Jewish Command’s issuing daily communiqués. Of course, this fun won’t last very long. But it shows what is to be expected if the Jews when they are in possession of arms.” Goebbels in his arrogance did not take into account the dire predictiment the Germans had put the Warsaw Ghetto Jews in that the Jews were fighting for their very survival from complete annihilation.

2 May 1943: 4,000 Jews from Miedzyrzec Podlaski (Poland) are murdered at the Treblinka extermination camp.

At Lukow (Poland), 4,000 Jews are killed.

3 May 1943: German troops in the “Aryan” section of Warsaw arrest and kill 21 women who are Jewish or suspected of being Jewish.

A Jewish man named Rakowski, and underground leader at the Treblinka extermination camp, is shot when currency intended to bribe Ukrainians to help him and a few others escape is discovered in his barrack.

4 May 1943: Four deportations of Jews from Holland to death camps at Auschwitz and Sobibor total 8,000 people.

6 May 1943: In Tunisia, US and their Allied forces launch a final offensive against Axis positions.

7 May 1943: Nearly 7,000 Jews are killed in Novogrudok (Belorussia).

A group of Jewish fighters in the Warsaw Ghetto, led by Pawel Bruskin, is ambushed by German troops while traveling through city’s sewer system.

Sephardic Jewish homes in Tunisia are ransacked and looted by departing German troops.

8 May 1943: German troops in the Warsaw Ghetto reach the headquarters of the Resistance. Leader Mordecai Anielewicz and about 100 of his followers are crushed, are suffocated or die by their own hands during a Nazi bombardment and gassing.

9 May 1943: The Skalat (Ukraine) Jewish community is destroyed.

10 May 1943: Two Jews are successfully smuggled out of Dobele (Latvia) and hidden in a haystack.

12 May 1943: 17-year-old Frania Beatus, active in the Warsaw Ghetto underground commits suicide rather than surrender to the Nazis.

In London, Artur Zygielbojm (pictured), a key figure in the (pre-German campaign) Jewish Social Democrat Party, commits suicide following nearly a year of fruitless campaigning on behalf of Jews trapped in the Warsaw Ghetto, including his wife and teenage son. His death is reported in the press, which pointedly omit’s the text of his suicide note, which condemns the US and their associates for their indifference to the Jewish plight.

13 May 1943: Hans Frank, governor-general of Occupied Poland, sends SS Chief Heinrich Himmler a list of personal goods and valuables stolen from Jews. Among the booty are 25,000 fountain pens and 14,000 pairs of scissors.

German and Italian troops surrender in Tunisia.

15 May 1943: Jewish ghetto police in Rohatyn (Poland), plot to acquire weapons with which to defend themselves.

By 6 June 1943: Germans execute all 1,000 Jews still remaining in the in Rohatyn (Poland) Ghetto after German authorities discover a plot of local Jewish policemen to purchase weapons.

An Anti-Semitism propaganda front page of The New York Times, dated 16 May 1943, which blames the Jews for trying to survive from utter extermination by the Germans in the Warsaw Ghetto and further shows the US/German collaboration ties.

16 May 1943: SS-Gruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stoop reports the final liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto, although some Jews remain in hiding.

The Stroop Report was first published in 1960. The 75-page paper painstakingly describes the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and glorifies the author and Commander Jurgen Stoop’s role in the process. His daily entries and communiqués record the cold-blooded brutality he levied against Warsaw’s Jews. On 16 May 1943, Stoop reported that the operation was complete and that “the Jewish Quarter is no more.”
(Stoop was sentenced to death by a Polish court of law and executed on 8 September 1951.)

17 May 1943: 395 Jews are deported from Berlin to the Auschwitz extermination camp.

18 May 1943: Nearly every resident of the Polish farming village of Szarajowka is shot or burned alive by the SS Wehrmacht troops and Gestapo agents. After the massacre the village is razed.

19 May 1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler sends Reich Security Main Office chief Ernst Kaltenbrunner copies of The Jewish Ritual Murder, an Anti-Semantic, falsified, religious persecution book, allegedly describing Jewish religious rituals. Himmler plans to distribute copies of this hate propaganda throughout Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and broadcast excerpts to the US and one other country. (See “The Hidden Tears of Persecution”)

“My sister Bracha, who was pregnant, wept in a loud voice. She was about 28. ‘But my baby hasn’t even been born yet, and never sinned. Why is he doomed?'”
-Survivor Zvi Szner

21 May 1943: 3,000 Jews driven from Brody (Ukraine) to a waiting transport train revolt, killing for Ukrainians and a few Germans. Many of the Jews break free being put on the train, only to be machine-gunned.

23 May 1943: Nazi Aktionen kill thousands of Ukrainian Jews at Przemyslany and Lvov.

24 May 1943: A Jewish partisan group organized by Judith Nowogrodzka escapes from the Bialystok (Poland) Ghetto.

The Germans end their submarine attacks on the US and their Allied Atlantic convoys.

27 May 1943: The Jews of Sokal (Ukraine) are deported to Belzec extermination camp.

3,000 Jews are killed at Tolstoye (Ukraine).

Female prisoners work in a factory owned by the AGFA Company, one of the many companies that belonged to the I.G. Farben conglomerate. German industries that supported that Nazi regime’s campaign effort benefited greatly from their access to force labor. Hundreds of thousands of people were removed from their homes, relocated to Germany and forced to work in German factories connected to the Nazi ideological effort.

30 May 1943: Dr. Josef Mengele, and SS captain, arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp to begin his medical duties.

31 May 1943: SS General Friedrich Wilhelm Kruger tells associates at a meeting in Krakow (Poland) that, although the elimination of Jews is unpleasant, it is “necessary from the standpoint of European interests.”

A Nazi prison administrator in Minsk (Belorussia), reports that 516 German and Russian Jews have been killed in late May, their gold crowns and fillings taken from their mouths before their deaths.

June 1943: Jews from Dalmatia (Serbia) are transferred to the island of Rab, which is off the coast of Croatia.

Early June 1943: Ina a combination of street assaults and killings at Janowska (Ukraine), 10,000 Jews from Lvov lose their lives.

1-6 June 1943: During the liquidation of the ghetto at Sosnowiec (Poland), a spirited resistance is led by Zvi Dunski, ill-armed Jews fight back as deportations proceed.

The Jewish ghetto at Buczacz (Ukraine) is liquidated. Some Jews resist and escape.

3 June 1943: German troops in the Warsaw Ghetto destroy a bunker on Walowa Street that was concealing 150 Jews.

Near Michalowice (Poland), Germans kill two Polish farmers who have rescued and hidden three Jewish escapees in a barn.

5 June 1943: 1,266 Jewish children under the age of 16 from Vught (Holland) are deported to the Sobibor extermination camp and gassed upon arrival.

In Minsk Mazowiecki (Poland), more than a 100 Jewish workers at the Rudzki factory are shot.

Imitation at the Camps

Dutch Jews stand on Apellplatz for roll call
After roll call, the prisoners marched through the gate, on their way to work in the quarry or factory, as the camp orchestra played melodies from Viennese operas and by some witness accounts, certain waltzes were also played.

Transition to life inside a Nazi concentration camp was jarring and disorienting experience. From the moment one entered the Lager, life’s every routine had to be renegotiated. Failure to adapt was lethal.

Deprived of food, water, and sanitary facilities for days on end, new arrivals were momentarily relieved when the doors to rail wagons were thrown open and they were ordered to disembark. Their relief, however, was short-lived.

At some camps, SS officers dressed in crispy pressed black uniforms ordered new arrivals to move left or right, toward life or death. Guards welcomed prisoners with blows from their rifle butts and truncheons, while emaciated figures in striped uniforms herded the new prisoners to their destinations.

Once inside the camp, new arrivals were shaved, tattooed (in some camps), and discarded into a completely alien environment.

To survive, prisoners had to forget that they ever lived in a civilized society and learn the ways of the Lager. They had to move with the crowd, avoid being singled out, and, whenever possible, secure an extra ration of food.

Inmates had precious little time to learn the routines of their new surroundings. Within days they were transformed from human beings to nameless victims of the Nazi regime.

7 June 1943: Dr. Klaus Clauberg reports from Auschwitz that the apparatus to sterilize 1,000 Jewish women a day is being set in place.

8 June 1943: The Jewish community at Zabrze (Ukraine) is destroyed.

Hans Frank (right), governor-general of Occupied-Poland hosts SS chief Heinrich Himmler at a dinner held at the Wewel castle in Krakow (Poland), in June 1943. Frank objected to Himmler’s complete control of the “Jewish problem” in Poland and the decision to use the Generalgouvernement as a dumping ground for Jews. His protests to Hitler went to no avail, as Himmler’s SS retained supreme authority over the “Final Solution.”

11 June 1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders stepped-up deportations of Jews from Polish Ghettos to death camps.

12 June 1943: The Jewish community at Berezhany (Ukraine) is murdered.

In Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, the chiefs of Jewish police are forced to witness Nazi executions of recaptured ghetto escapees: 23-year-ols Hersch Fejgelis, 29-year-old Mordecai Standarowicz and 31-year-old Abram Tandowski.

15 June 1943: A coal-mine labor camp at Jaworzno (Poland) near Auschwitz opens.

SS Lieutenant-General Richard Glucks (pictured), chief of the Concentration Camp Inspectorate, orders that sensitive buildings at Auschwitz be relocated from prying eyes.

At the Janowska death pits at Lvov (Ukraine), hundreds of Jewish slave laborers are forced to exhume corpses of Jews, plunder them for jewelry and gold dental work and then burn the corpses to destroy evidence of the killings.

16 June 1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler allows a transfer of Jewish prisoners from Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp to the Sachsenhausen (Germany) concentration camp for medical experiments involving jaundice.

Dr. Nina Jurezkaya, a physician who escaped from Minsk (Belorussia) Ghetto to nearby forests, is recaptured, tortured and shot.

In Berlin, 200 patients are deported from the city’s Jewish hospital to the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto.

German authorities declare Berlin Judenein-purged of Jews.

20 June 1943: 5,000 Jews from Amsterdam are deported to Auschwitz.

The Ternopol (Ukraine) Ghetto is liquidated.

21 June 1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in the Soviet Union.

The Jews remaining in Lvov (Ukraine) Ghetto are hunted and killed, including 350 to 500 discovered in the city’s sewer system.

All Jewish workers at municipal factories in Drogobych (Ukraine) are killed.

German professor August Hirt chooses 103 Jewish men and women at Auschwitz to be transported to Natzweiler-Struthof camp near Strasbourg (Occupied-France). They are gassed. The soft tissues of their bodies removed and their skeletons are strung up as exhibits in the Reich Anatomical Institute of Strasbourg for study of the Jewish race.

The Nazi Butcher

Amon Leopold Göth (11 December, 1908 – 13 September 1946) born in Vienna (Austria), was a Hauptsturmführer of the SS commandant of Płaszów concentration camp (Poland). Göth's career at Płaszów became internationally known through his depiction by Ralph Fiennes in the movie Schindler's List.

A prisoner in Plaszow was lucky if he survived more than four weeks. Collective punishment became frequent, torture and death were daily events. Groups passing one another on different work shifts reported the daily number killed.

In 1943 on Yom Kippur, an important holiday of the Jewish year, Goeth and his SS-men took 50 Jews from the barracks and shot them. Often prisoners were publicly hung, with more than 15,000 inmates lined up on the ground. Moshe Beijski - a Schindler Jew who later became a High Court Judge in Israel - gave this testimony at the trial of the war criminal Adolf Eichmann:

"All those people stood on the ground, and the two persons were brought to the gallows: a lad of 15, Haubenstock, and the engineer Krautwirt, and an order was given to hang them. It was said in the camp that young Haubenstock had sung a Russian tune. The boy was hanged and something happened which occurs once in many thousands of cases - the rope broke. The boy stood there, he was again lifted on to a high chair which was placed under the rope, and he began to beg for mercy. An order was given to hang him a second time. And then he was raised a second time to the gallows, and hanged, and thereafter that same Amon Goeth, with his own hands, also fired a shot.

The engineer Krautwirt, throughout that time, stood on the second chair, and here the perfidy went even further. SS men, with their guns, and machine guns, passed through the ranks, and gave orders to all those standing on the ground to watch. Engineer Krautwirt cut the veins of his hands with a razor blade, and in this condition went up to the gallows. And in this way he was hanged."

An SS guard with his dog at the Plaszow concentration camp. (1944)
Don't let the photo fool you, the dog was trained to kill, as well as the guard would do the same.

At the same trial Moshe Beijski told more about Amon Goeth and the other methods of punishment used by the Camp Commandant:

"The case of Olmer, whose daughter lives in Jerusalem, and I know her .. He was summoned by the Camp Commandant Amon Goeth. The Camp Commandant had two dogs, Ralf and Rolf, and he set the dogs on him. The dogs ate him up alive. Possibly a little breath still remained in him. He shot him and he was killed ...

A group that appeared with food in its possession ... a particular group of the Abladekommando, a unit which was in charge of the offloading of goods from the railway station - they found food in its possession. Then the camp commander, Untersturmfuehrer Amon Goeth, came up and asked whose food it was. When no one answered, he took a young man whose name was Nachmansohn ... and shot him. On the same occasion he shot another man, Disler. And then someone had a brilliant idea and said that they had brought the food ... Then everyone received one hundred lashes.

One of the men - named Mandel - remained lying there until the group was taken to the parade ground, and there everyone received his deserts. He himself had to count the blows, and if he made an error in the counting, he had to go back to the beginning ... There was an instance with that group where one of the older men was beaten and cried out a great deal, and after that had to go to Goeth and to inform him that he had received his punishment, and he thanked him for it. When he turned around, he shot him, and he, too, was killed."

Prisoners pulling carts loaded with stones used in the construction of the camp's roads in Plaszow concentration camp. (1944)

The brother of Moshe Beijski, Dov Beijski, survived Plaszow, too. He later recalled:

"Early in May 1944 we were all paraded and ordered to strip naked. All inmates were run before him and he sent them right or left, to which side the old, weak and defective or juvenile were sent. Two days later they were separated, placed on good wagons and were joined by the 250 children in the camp. The outcry was stifled by SS guns pointed at us all, and loudspeakers played lullabies. More than 1200 adults and 250 children were taken to Auschwitz and the death chambers. One boy of 12 or 13 named Jerzy Spiro managed to escape and hid all day in the cesspit at the latrine, with only his head uncovered. I do not know whether he survived the war ..."

At Plaszow Amon Goeth passed his mornings by using his high-powered, scoped rifle to shoot children playing in the camp. Rena Finder, one of Schindler’s Jews then 14 years old, later remembered Goeth as "…the most vicious sadistic man…"

A survivor, Arthur Kuhnreich, later told about Amon Goeth in his Holocaust Memories: "I saw Goeth set his dog on a Jewish prisoner. The dog tore the victim apart. When he did not move anymore, Goeth shot him."

The balcony of Amon Göth's house in Płaszów, where he enjoyed shooting and killing prisoners. (2008)

The 20-year-old Schindler-worker Isak Pila had made the mistake of falling asleep under a table at the factory the same day that Amon Goeth came by for an inspection. When Goeth saw the sleeping boy, he told Oscar Schindler to kill him instantly. Schindler desperately tried to find a way out and hit the boy on one side of the face, then the other. Finally he said to Goeth, 'He's had enough. I need him ...' And Isak Pila survived the Holocaust.

Oskar Schindler (seated) with Leopold Pfefferberg, who was saved by Schindler. Schindler saved the lives of 1,200 Jews and is considered among the Righteous of the Nations. One woman he saved, became a very dear friend of mine and for this I am grateful, for she was a remarkable person.

After the Nazi campaign, the Supreme National Tribunal of Poland at Kraków found Göth guilty of murdering tens of thousands of people. He was hanged on 13 September 1946, age 37, not far from the former site of the Płaszów camp.

(1) Amon Goeth as commandant of the forced labour camp at Plaszow (Cracow or Krakow) from 11th February, 1943, till 13th September, 1944, caused the death of about 8,000 inmates by ordering a large number of them to be exterminated.

(2) As a SS-Sturmführer Amon Goeth carried out the final closing down of the Cracow ghetto. This liquidation action which began on 13th March, 1943, deprived of freedom about 10,000 people who had been interned in the camp of Plaszow, and caused the death of about 2,000.

(3) As a SS-Hauptsturmführer Amon Goeth carried out on 3rd September, 1943, the closing down of the Tarnow ghetto. As a result of this action an unknown number of people perished, having been killed on the spot in Tarnow. Others died through asphyxiation during transport by rail or were exterminated in other camps, in particular at Auschwitz.

(4) Between September, 1943, and 3rd February, 1944, Amon Goeth closed down the forced labour camp at Szebnie near Jaslo by ordering the inmates to be murdered on the spot or deported to other camps, thus causing the death of several thousand persons.

Plaszow Concentration Camp

In Płaszów, Göth tortured and murdered prisoners on a daily basis. During his time at Płaszów, Göth allegedly shot over 500 Jews himself; Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the Schindler Jews, said, "When you saw Göth, you saw death."

23 June 1943: Ukrainian police surround a Jewish school at Czortkow (Ukraine), where 534 Jewish slave laborers are housed. The camp commandant, Thomanek shoots several prisoners and orders others carted off for execution.

A local gentile, Jan Nakonieczny, successfully hides five Jews in his tiny henhouse.

24 June 1943: Armed resistance occurs at Lvov (Ukraine).

A new crematorium opens at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

29 June 1943: South Warsaw, five Poles are shot for hiding 4 Jews, the Jews are also shot. At the Biala-Waka Labor Camp near Vilna (Lithuania), 67 inmates are shot as reprisal for the escape of 6 Jews to a nearby forest.

Late June 1943: Elderly residents of a Jewish nursing home are deported to the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto.

July 1943: In an American broadcast, Jewish Congressman Emanuel Celler excoriates the US government for its silence on the Nazi treatment of European Jews.

The American Woman’s International League for Peace and Freedom-‘estimates that millions of Jews have already been murdered by the Germans in Poland and that the American government and people share in the quilt for these atrocities because they are complacent coward covered "with a thick layer of prejudice"'- as quoted.

A former prisoner reenacts a torture method used by the SS at Dachau concentration camp. Dachau also served as the central camp for Christian religious prisoners. According to records of the Roman Catholic Church, at least 3,000 preachers, deacons, priests, and bishops were imprisoned there.

5 July 1943: The Germans launch a major armored offensive at Kursk (Russia), initiating the largest tank battle in history.

By 23 July, the German tank battle at Kursk (Russia), fails.

Heinrich Himmler orders that Sobibor extermination camp, be made a concentration camp.

6 July 1943: More than 2,400 Jews are deported from Holland to Sobibor.

10 July 1943: The US and their Allies land in Sicily.

Thousands of Jews from Lvov (Ukraine) are murdered at Kamenka-Bugskaya.

11 July 1943: Martin Bormann, Hitler’s secretary, issues a top-level directive on Hitler’s behalf, instructing that public discussion of Jews must not mention “a future overall solution” but only that Jews are being assembled for labor.

14-17 July 1943: The “Krasnodar Trial” of 13 alleged Soviet collaborators opens in the Caucasus region of Russia.

Vladimir Tischenko: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Ivan Kotomtsev: 20 Years Imprisonment
Nikolai Pushkarev: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Mikhail Lastovina: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Georgi Misan: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Ivan Kladov: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Vassily Pavlov: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Ivan Paramonov: 20 Years Imprisonment
Gregori Tuchkov: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)
Ivan Rechkalov: 20 Years Imprisonment
Yakov Naptsok: The Death Sentence (Executed on the 18th July 1943)

A group of Russian and Ukrainian auxiliaries of sonderkommando 10a were arraigned before a Soviet military court of the North Caucasian Front, from 14 July 1943, to 17 July 1943. All were found guilty, eight sentenced to death. Three were sentenced to 20 years imprisonment and the death sentences were carried out on the 18 July 1943.

16 July 1943: Theophil Wurm, bishop of the Evangelical Church in Wurttemburg (Germany), sends a letter to Berlin in which he asks that the persecution of “members of other nations and races” be halted immediately.

17 July 1943: Partisan leader Yitzhak Wittenberg surrenders to the Gestapo to prevent the razing of Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto.

18 July 1943: 200 slave laborers are murdered at Miedzyrzec (Poland).

1,000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz from Paris.

19 July 1943: Germans use 3,500 Jewish slave laborers to undertake a massive search for valuables in the remains of the Warsaw Ghetto.

20 July 1943: 500 hundred slave laborers are murdered at Czestochowa (Poland).

2,209 Jews are deported from Holland to Sobibor.

Two Jews escape from Sobibor.

22 July 1943: Because the US State Department continues to delay any action on the Riegner Plan to save 70,000 Jews, Rabbi Stephen Wise pleads with US President Franklin Roosevelt to support the plan. Roosevelt allows the plan to be killed because of “strenuous” US allied “objection.”

23 July 1943: forty-year-old Mandel Langer, active as an anti-Nazi saboteur since the end of 1942, is executed in Toulouse (Occupied-France).

24 July 1943: 21 young Jewish partisans in Vilna (Lithuania) join with Soviet partisans behind German lines. North of Vilna, 9 of the Jews are killed in an ambush at Mickun Bridge.

Three days later, 32 relatives of the 9 dead partisans are seized by the Gestapo at Vilna, taken to a nearby gravel pit at Ponary and executed.

Bruno Kittel, head of the Gestapo in Vilna, announces that the entire family of any Jews who escapes the ghetto to the forest will be executed. If any escapee has no family or roommates, all residents of his building will be executed. Further, if any ten-man Jewish labor gang comes back short, the remaining gang laborers will be executed.

The Spanish government intervenes on behalf of 367 Sephardic Jews in Salonika Greece, seeing that they are spared deportation to Auschwitz and instead safety to Spain.

25 July 1943: Italian dictator Benito Mussolini resigns under pressure and is arrested.

'A young Jew in Janowska (Ukraine), labor camp near Lvov apparently pleased by Mussolini’s downfall, angers a Gestapo agent, who orders the youth hung upside down, his penis amputated and placed in his mouth and his stomach kicked until he dies.'

27 July 1943: Germans murder 17 Jews discovered hiding in the rubble of the Warsaw Ghetto.

28 July 1943: Jan Karski, a Catholic-Polish underground fighter who visited the Warsaw Ghetto and the Belzec death camp, arrives in the US to tell American leaders what he had seen.

His interview with US President Franklin Roosevelt indicates that the President already knows much about the Holocaust.

Late July 1943: Members of the Sonderkommando at the Belzec death camp are sent north to the extermination camp at Sobibor, where the inmates revolt upon arrival and are shot.

August 1943: Inmates revolt at the slave-labor camp at Sasow (Poland).

Armed resistance occurs at a slave-labor camp at Lackie Wielkie (Poland).

Following armed resistance at the Jackstraw (Poland), slave-labor camp, the camp is liquidated and the inmates killed.

Frumka Plotnicka, who has repeatedly risked her life by slipping out of and back in the Warsaw Ghetto with news and contraband, is corned by the Nazis in a cellar in Bedzin (Poland) and shot.

A Jewish revolt at the Konin (Poland), slave-labor camp, led by Rabbi Joshua Aaronson, culminates in the killing of nearly all the rioters.

Rows of bodies of dead inmates fill the yard of Lager Nordhausen, a Gestapo concentration camp and an underground weapons plant.

Beneath the lime-stone of the Harz Mountains in Germany, slave-labor construction begins on Nordhausen, an underground weapons plant.

1 August 1943: The Jewish ghettos at Bedzin and Sosnowiec (Poland) are liquidated. Most of the Jews are deported to Auschwitz. Jews offer armed resistance.

2 August 1943: Jewish inmates of the Treblinka death camp armed with small numbers of pistols, rifles and hand grenades, as well as gasoline; stage a violent revolt that allows the escape of 350 to 400 of the camp’s 700 inmates. All but a 100 are hunted down and murdered.

3 August 1943: Jewish Fighting Organization members in the Bedzin (Poland) Ghetto, mount an unsuccessful resistance to the Nazis. Local JFO leader Baruch Graftek and his fellow fighters are killed.

6 August 1943: 1,000 Jews in Vilna (Lithuania) are deported to Klooga, Estonia, as the Germans begin to liquidate the Vilna Ghetto.

7 August 1943: The last trainload of Jews from Salonika (Greece) leaves for Auschwitz with 1,800 detainees.

By this date, most of Salonika’s pre-campaign Jewish population (estimated at 56,000) has been killed.

10 August 1943: 27 Jewish women seized by Nazis in the “Aryan” section of Warsaw are executed.

15 August 1943: Nearly 1,000 French Jews of Polish births are deported to a slave-labor camp on Alderney; one of the British Channel Islands seized 1940 by Germany and are put to work building fortifications.

16 August 1943: Inmates revolt at the Krychow (Poland) slave-labor camp.

“The last Aktion (Akcja), the Jews herded to the square near the Poleski train station, before deporicacars (possibly “deportation carries“) to death in Treblinka.” (Photographed by a Pole from the roof of his house, 16 August 1943.)

16-20 August 1943: Nazi troops enter the Jewish ghetto at Bialystok (Poland) to destroy the more than 30,000 Jews inside. Hundreds of resistance fighters, led by Mordechai Tenebaum-Tamaroff and Daniel Moszkpwicz-who battle back with small arms, axes and bayonets-are annihilated. Those who survive are transported to death camps, where 25,000 are killed.

17 August 1943: Some 1,200 children are taken from the Jewish ghetto at Bialystok (Poland) , to the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto and later to Auschwitz where they will be killed.

The US and their allies defeat Axis forces in Sicily.

19 August 1943: The Treblinka death camp receives its final trainload of Jewish deportees. They come from Bialystok (Poland).

20 August 1943: 3,000 Jews are executed during a revolt at Glebokie (Belorussia).

23 August 1943: The Soviet Army captures Kharkov (Ukraine).

24 August 1943: 5,000 Jews from Bialystok (Poland) are killed at Auschwitz, Treblinka and Majdanek.

25 August 1943: SS troops at the Janowska (Ukraine), labor camp select 24 attractive Jewish women aged 17 to 20 and take them to a night-long SS bacchanalia.

26 August 1943: A young Jewish woman, one of the 24 who was an unwilling guest an SS “party” at Janowska (Ukraine) labor camp the previous night, is shot during an escape attempt. The remaining 23 are subsequently murdered.

The Jewish community from Zawierci (Poland) is destroyed at Auschwitz.

27 August 1943: All the Jews working at a cement factory in Drogobych (Ukraine, near the Janowska labor camp) are murdered. One of the victims is Dr. Mojzesz Bay, 36-year-old graduate of the Sorbonne.

28 August 1943: Germany imposes martial law on Denmark and abolishes the Danish-German agreement of 9 April 1940; which prevented German molestation of Jews.

Late August 1943: 47 Jewish women and 50 Jewish men are executed after being discovered in the “Aryan” section of Warsaw.

September 1943: Germans send a Polish labor battalion into the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto to flatten any walls and other structures still standing following the German assault of the previous spring. Most of the survivors of the April-May “liquidation” die during this demolition.

In Paris, three Jewish partisans ambush and assassinate Karl Ritter, aid to Nazi slave-labor chief Fritz Sauckel.

After refusing for months, the Hungarian government accedes to German demands for Jews to be used as slave labor at copper mines at Bor (Yugoslavia).

A concentration camp for Soviet POW’s is established at Vaivara (Estonia). By 28 June 1944, the camp is closed.

Jews at Sobibor death camp attack SS guards with stones and bottles. All attackers are killed.

Jewish women and children, as well as the elderly and sick left on the island of Rab after deportation from Dalmatia (Serbia), are transferred to a concentration camp at Zemun (Yugoslavia) and killed. Others remain on the island and are protected by partisans.

Hundreds of Jews escape from Vilna (Lithuania) and head east towards the Soviet front-line.

Vitka Kempner blows up an electrical transformer located in the city. A day later, she enters the camp at Keilis, near Vilna and smuggles several dozen prisoners to safety. Still later, she travels with 5 other partisans to Olkiniki (Poland), where she helps torch a turpentine factory.

Women played an unusually prominent role in the Jewish underground in German-occupied Eastern Europe. Pictured here are three of the important leaders of the resistance in the Vilna Ghetto (L to R): Zelda Nisanilevich Treger, Rozka Korczak-Marla and Vitka Kempner-Kovner. (Yad Vashem, Jerusalem)

Vitka Kempner was born in Kalish, on the Polish-German border, in 1922. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Kalish fell and Vitka escaped to Vilna, Poland. When Operation Barbarossa, Germany’s attack on the Soviet Union, was launched in 1941 Vilna was occupied and a ghetto was formed. Hearing the rumors about the death camps, Vitka decided to take her destiny into her own hands.

After contacting the famous Jewish youth leader Abba Kovner who, like her, was a member of the Zionist youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa'ir, Vitka became one of the founding members of would be liquidated. After a failed uprising, Vitka helped the FPO to evacuate much of the population through the sewer system, to the surrounding forests. The ghetto escapees who stayed with Kovner in the Vilna forests became the partisan brigade known as the Avengers. They continued their sabotage operations, destroying both the power plant and the waterworks of Vilna, the city they once loved.

Vitka also reached out to the survivors. They aided hundreds of European Jews in immigrating to “Palestine.” In 1946 Vitka and her husband Abba Kovner followed, settling at Kibbutz Ein Horesh and raising two children. Vitka, now a widow, still resides in Israel. She has four grandchildren.

2 September 1943: 1,000 Jews are deported from Paris to Auschwitz.

10,000 Jews from Tarnow (Poland) are deported to Auschwitz and Plaszow slave-labor camp.

At Treblinka, 13 Jews use a crowbar to kill an Ukrainian guard. The uprising’s 18-year-old Polish leader Seweryn Klajnman, puts on the dead man’s uniform and marches the other 12 prisoners who are already on work detail outside the camp, moving farther away from the camp to their freedom.

Eye in the Sky

(Untitled Poem)

I cry
but no one hear's me
I live
in fear alone
I'm scared
I don't
know if I'll live to see
and if I do
I'll thank God for it.
When I wake up
from this
horrible dream
I will live in freedom.
Maybe I'll be in heaven
but anywhere is heaven
to me
now I see
dark shadows moving across
at night if this is life than
its not worth living.

-Rachel Kruger

2-3 September 2009: Thirty-five hundred Jews are deported from Przemysl (Poland) to Auschwitz.

3-8 September 1943: The US and their Allies invade the Italian peninsula. Italy surrenders to them. The “new” Italian leader, Marshal Pietro Badoglio (He was a member of the National Fascist Party and pictured at the left), signs an armistice with the US and their Allies.

5-6 September 1943: An old shoe warehouse in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto takes delivery of 12 freight cars filled with shoes stolen from murdered Jews.

8 September 1943: 5,006 Jews deported from the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto arrive at Auschwitz.

Italian forces surrender to Germany at Rhodes. German troops occupy Athens.

10 September 1943: Jewish youths attack German troops at Miedzyrzec (Poland), killing two. Five Jews are shot.

A tea party known as the “Solf Circle” attended by the widow ( of Wilhelm H. Solf (former colonial minister under German Emperor Wilhelm II), her daughter Grafin Ballestrem and other members of the anti-Hitler German Resistance is infiltrated by a Dr. Reckse, a Gestapo agent.

'They hurriedly fled for their lives, but it was too late, as Heinrich Himmler had his evidence. He waited four months to act on it, hoping to cast a wider net; apparently he succeeded, for on 12 January 1944, some seventy-four persons, including everyone who had been in the tea party, were arrested. The Solf themselves fled to Bavaria and were caught by the Gestapo; they were then incarcerated in Ravensbrück concentration camp.'

Germans occupy Rome.

11 September 1943: 1,000 Jews discovered hiding in Przemysl (Poland) are murdered.

11-14 September 1943: The Jewish community of Minsk (Belorussia) is liquidated.

13 September 1943: In the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, Icek Bekermann is hanged for taking leather scrapes for use as shoelaces. The ghetto carpenter shop is ordered to construct the gallows.

14 September 1943: Jacob Gens, Judenrat leader at the Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto, is shot by the Nazis.

Mid-September 1943: At the Sobibor death camp, members of the corpse-burning detail have built an escape tunnel intended to lead them into the camp minefield. Most of the 150 members of the detail are killed.

16 September 1943: More than 37,000 Italian Jews come under German rule.

18 September 1943: 2,000 Jews in Minsk (Belorussia) are deported to Sobibor death camp; 80 are selected for forced labor and the rest are gassed.

18-19 September 1943: The Jews of Lida (Belorussia) are deported to Majdanek death camp.

20 September 1943: 1,000 Jewish inmates of the camp at Szebnie (Poland) are trucked to a nearby field and executed with machine guns. The bodies are burned and the bones thrown into the Jasiolka River.

Jacob Kapler, a Jew assigned to the body-burning detail at the Bar Yar (Ukraine), at mass-murder site, finds a key that fit’s the padlock on a bunker in which he and other laborers are locked each night.

As of 29 September, more than 320 Jews and Soviet POW’s from the Bar Yar (Ukraine) work detail attempt to escape; nearly all are shot down almost immediately, but about 14 find hiding places.

Five weeks after escaping the Bar Yar (Ukraine) work detail on 6 November, those 14 Jews and Soviet POW’s come out of hiding to greet the Soviet Army as it liberates Kiev (Ukraine).

Late-September 1943: 40 Jews hiding in forests near Koniecpol (Poland) are attacked by Poles. Many of the Jews are killed.

"From time to time we see people working on the tracks… many of them in POW uniforms. We ask them where, what is the probable target of your trip. They shrug their shoulders. One points to the sky. We fail to understand the hint."-Survivor Anneliese Borinsky

22 September 1943: Wilhelm Kube, the Generalkommissur of Belorussia is assassinated by a bomb placed beneath his bed by a Soviet partisan who assigned to work as his maid.

24 September 1943: Nazi completes the liquidation of the Vilna Jewish ghetto.

25 September 1943: The Soviet Army captures Smolensk (Russia).

Only about 2,000 Jews, scattered among four labor camps, remains in Vilna (Lithuania).

Eliahu Barzili, chief rabbi of Athens (Greece), disguises himself as a peasant and escapes from the city.

26 September 1943: At the Novgorod (Belorussia) labor camp, Jews complete secret work on a tunnel dug under the wire. Of the 220 Jews who use the tunnel to attempt escape, 120 are killed or captured.

Symphonia Diabolica

Numerous types of ploys are used towards detainees or those marked for extermination and are still in use well into the 21st century such as the false resemblance of a happy family, too even music is subverted by the Nazis.

To calm arrivals and delude them into thinking that they were in a safe haven, the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp orchestra played cheerful and familiar melodies as people descended from the trains. Music also provided a macabre accompaniment to death, as shown in this photo from Mauthausen.

Prisoners are marched to the gallows while accompanied by the violins and accordion of the camp orchestra.

The inmates referred to this as the Symphonia Diabolica, the Devil's Symphony.

28-29 September 1943: Five thousand Jews from Amsterdam are deported to the Westerbork (Holland) transit camp.

The Jewish community from Split (Yugoslavia) is killed at the Sajmiste (Yugoslavia) concentration camp.

Roman Jews deliver 50 kilograms of gold to the Gestapo in Rome, as ordered. Pope Pius XII has offered to lend the Italian Jews 15 kilograms of gold if they could not collect the full amount themselves.

30 September 1943: The Krupp arms factory at Mariupol (Ukraine), is dismantled and relocated west to Funfteichen, Silesia (Poland), where it is staffed by Jewish slave-labor.

September 1943-April 1944: Jewish slave laborers exhume at least 68,000 corpses of murdered Jews and Soviet POW’s at the Ponary (Lithuania) killing ground, near Vilna.

Autumn 1943: Technicians representing Topf and Sons, the German manufacture/installer of crematoria furnaces at Auschwitz-Birkenau, study the combustibility of corpses mated to various grades of coke.

Topf and Sons was asked by the SS to design special crematoria furnaces capable of cremating very large numbers of bodies. The company and its chief engineer Kurt Prüfer obliged.

Kurt Prüfer was captured for a time by the Americans, but released after questioning. The Russians however, arrested Prüfer, and sentenced him to 25 years imprisonment. Prüfer died in a Russian gulag in 1952.

Ludwig Topf, one of the owners of the company, committed suicide in May 1945, while his brother Ernst-Wolfgang Topf, fled to West Germany.

The company of Topf & Sons, was nationalized by the former East German Communist regime and remained in business until 1996.

US and one Allie bomb, the German industrialized Ruhr region with increased intensity.

October 1943: The Jewish ghetto at Chernovtsy(Romania) is liquidated.

SS chief Heinrich Himmler delivers a speech at a “Final Solution” conference.

Just before their murders, several Jewish women use their bare hands to attack SS troops at Auschwitz.

A Swiss volunteer named Abbe Grass (left) reaches through a barbed wire fence surrounding the Gurs transit camp to share a cigarette with a prisoner. Located in the Pyrenees Region of France, Gurs was a makeshift detention center that held thousands of Jews before they were deported to Auschwitz.

Flimsy shelters, dirt roads that turned to mud when it rained and starvation rations made for extremely unpleasant conditions for those imprisoned at Gurs.

2 October 1943: The Danish people rescue about 7,000 Jews, only 500 of whom are captured by the Germans. The 500 seized by the Germans are sent to the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto; all but 77 will survive the war. The Danish government will persistently check on the health and welfare of the Jews who are sent to Theresienstadt, enabling almost all of them to survive to 1945.

The first Jewish “Palestinian” paratroopers land in the Balkans. These Jews agree first to help organized non-Jewish underground units on behalf of one of the US allies, just so those allies would allow them to aid other Jews; otherwise, they wouldn‘t be allowed to give aid in any manner.

2-3 October 1943: In Holland, the families of Jewish men drafted for force labor are sent to Westerbork (Holland) concentration camp.

3 October 1943: On a routine barracks inspection at the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp, an SS doctor judges’ 139 inmates unfit to work. These inmates are promptly gassed.

4 October 1943: In an address to senior SS officers, SS chief Heinrich Himmler notes that killing is hard but necessary and that killing Jews will never be spoken of publicly.

6 October 1943: A Jew posing as a Catholic Helen Manaster is called out of the delivery room in the Krakow (Poland) hospital while in labor pains to face two Gestapo agents. She keeps her calm and the Gestapo agents tell her to go back to bed.

7 October 1943: In an official report, the German chief of police in Poland recommends that Poles who aid Jews should be dealt with without benefit of trial.

Jews in Hiding

Throughout Europe, in attics and basements, under floorboards, in secret cupboards so small they could barely crouch; Jews struggled to hide themselves from their Nazi persecutors. Sometimes they were hidden by non-Jewish friends; sometimes by complete strangers.

In Amsterdam, the Frank family, along with four others, hid for months in a secret annex, supplied with the essentials of life by Miep Gies [(Pictured right, reading her incoming letters in June 2001) Miep passed away 11 January 2010, at the age of 100 years-old; apparently from a neck injury due to a fall]. Dutch women Dieuwke Hofstede opened her doors to Henny Kalkstein. Converts and monasteries also hid Jewish children.

In the Northern Italian town of Assisi, Father Rufino Niccacci supplied Jews with forged identity papers and helped them find homes and work.

In France, the entire village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, guided by its pastor, Andre Trocme, was committed to hiding and protecting Jewish refugees.

Germans flush out Jews in hiding

In Eastern Europe, finding a hiding place was extremely difficult. Although many Poles were Anti-Semitic and many others feared the consequences of aiding Jews, some Poles responded to the cries for help. Irene Gut Oppyke hid 12 Jews in the house of a German officer for whom she worked as a housekeeper.

In Wlodawa, Poland, a Jewish man named Yankel lived for a whole year in a hole in the floor of a barn. The farm itself was occupied by German soldiers.

But yet, the understanding to both, they who are in hiding and those giving aid was that if they were caught by the Germans, it meant most assuredly death. It was more important to those that gave aid honestly to save a life, then see it taken away by such a ghastly German methods.
Nevertheless, their always were those that would say they wanted to help and subsequently the intention was actually death for the hapless frightened Jew.

As for the many Jews and Muslims living in the US during this period and even well into the 1960‘s, used various method’s to hide, so as not to be noticed or at other times to not even be seen for the shear fear of Anti-Semitic reprisal. While in these current times, one doesn’t so much hide as what occurred during the Nazi campaign; but yet, still faces the constraint threat of Anti-Semitic or Islamophobic persecution which too often times comes with extreme violent reprisals and in numerous cases still violent death or oppressive intimidation.

8 October 1943: On the eve of Yom Kippur, several thousand ill or weak Jewish men are gassed at Auschwitz.

3,000 Italian prisoners of war are murdered by the SS and Ukrainian guards at La Risiera di San Sabba, Italy, south of Trieste. Of 1920 Jews in Trieste, 620 are murdered by the SS.

10 October 1943: A non-Jewish Latvian named Yanis Lipke rescues three Jews in Riga by offering ghetto guards two packs of cigarettes for “some Yids to work in my kitchen garden.”

11 October 1943: One day after rescuing three Jews from Riga (Latvia) Ghetto by asking guards for Jews to labor on his property, Yanis Lipke rescues additional Jews with the same ruse.

At the Sobibor death camp, new arrivals panic and run towards barbed wire, only to be machine-gunned by guards.

13 October 1943: Italy declares war on Germany.

Hatchets, knives and warm clothing are secretly distributed among inmates at the Sobibor death camp.

14 October 1943: Leon Feldhender and Jewish Soviet officer Alexander Pechersky (“Sasha“), interned at Sobibor extermination camp since September, instigated an inmate revolt and escape, during which 11 German SS guards and two or three Ukrainian SS guards are killed.

Two hundred of the 600 Jews in the camp are killed by gunfire and exploding mines; among them is 33 year-old Dutch painter Max Can Dam. Of the 300 who escaped, only 100 are recaptured; many if the remaining 200 escapees join the Soviet partisan forces. Of these 50 to 70, including Pechersky will survive the war.

Some of the Sobibor resistance fighters. Among them Leon Feldhendler (standing on the right), Yehuda Lerner (sitting on the right), Esther Raab (sitting, 2nd from right) and Zelda Metz (sitting, 3rd from left) this photograph was taken in 1944.The Sobibor extermination camp was located near Sobibor village, in the eastern part of the Lublin district of Poland, close to the Chelm - Wlodawa railway line. The Bug River (5 km away) today forms the border with the Ukraine.

One that survived Sobibor and joined the Soviet partisans, was 16 year-old Stanislaw Szmajzner, who not only participated in the revolt at Sobibor, but helped to organize the revolt.

He was also one of three members of this particular group of Soviet partisans to survive the war.

16 October 1943: Two days after the violent Jewish revolt at the Sobibor extermination camp, SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the camp destroyed and planted with trees.

German Ambassador to the Vatican Ernst Von Weisacker compliments the Holy See for its “perfect even handedness” in treating Germany and their Allies. When Weizsacker asks what Pope Pius XII will do if the German government persists in its present Jewish policy in Italy, Vatican Secretary of State Maglione replies that the “Holy See would not want to be put in the position of having to utter a word of disapproval.” “Cautious so as not to give the German people the impression that [he] has done or has wished to do even the smallest thing against Germany during this terrible war.”

During this same day, Germans looking for Jews in Rome conduct house-to-house searches. About a thousand Jews are briefly held at Rome’s Collegio Militare, then deported to Auschwitz.

While there is claims that 477 Jews were sheltered in the Vatican and another 4,238 find sanctuary in convents and monasteries throughout Rome. Nevertheless, by this date more than 8,300 Italian Jews have been deported to Auschwitz.

17 October 1943: German Ambassador to the Vatican Ernst von Weizsacker writes to the German Foreign Ministry that the College of Cardinals has been “particularly dismayed” since the roundup of Jews in Rome is occurring “below the very windows of the Pope.” He notes that the Pope continues to do everything he can “not to burden relations with the German government and German agencies in Rome.”

20 October 1943: The United Nations War Crimes Commission is established. On 26 October 1943, The United Nations War Crimes Commission composed of 15 US Allied countries (excluding the Soviet Union), has its first meeting outside the US, but in a participating US allied country.

21 October 1943: During the final Aktion in Minsk (Belorussia) about 2,000 Jews are murdered at Maly Trostinets.

23 October 1943: Eighteen hundred Polish Jews formerly held at Bergen-Belsen (Germany), arrive at Auschwitz, where the women revolt outside the gas chambers, killing one SS guard and wounding two. SS reinforcements use gas grenades and machine-gun fire to subdue and kill the resisters.

25 October 1943: Members of the Jewish community at Dvinsk (Latvia) are deported to the concentration camp at Riga-Kaiserwald (Latvia).

The Germans begin the liquidation of the corpse-burning squad at Janowska (Ukraine) labor camp.

Reich Anatomical Institute in Strasbourg

The Jewish corpses were usually gassed at an extermination camp, pior to being immersed in vats of alcohol for more than a year or for a more quicker result, Sulphuric acid was used; than Dr. August Hirt's group had the opportunity to strip the flesh from the bones or further clean after the acid solution. The skulls and skeletons, were later put on display at the institute.

On 25 October 1943, SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the destruction of the Jewish collection of skulls and skeletons at the Reich Anatomical Institute in Strasbourg. (see 21 June 1943)

26 October 1943: 3,000 Jews are deported from Kovno (Lithuania) to the slave-labor camp at Klooga (Estonia).

November 1943: Nazis raze the death camp at Treblinka.

A Hebrew teacher named Szosznik leads inmate resistance at the Majdanek death camp.

The corpse-burning squad revolts at Borki (Poland). 50 are killed and 3 survive.

The first deaths occur at the Funfteichen, Silesia (Poland) slave-labor camp.

The camp at Sobibor is demolished.

US State Department official Breckinridge Long’s (Pictured) campaign against Jewish immigration reaches its apex when he falsely testifies before the House Foreign Affairs Committee. He informs the committee that the US has admitted 580,000 refugees since 1933. He implies that most are Jews and that they remain in the US. But the fact is that fewer than 200,000 remain I the US; many have emigrated from the US to other countries and many of the refugees were non-Jews. Long’s figures apply only to the number of visas issued by the US. The net number of German refugees who stay in the US is only 51,960. Between the attack on Pearl Harbor and until 1945, only 21,000 additional refugees are admitted to the US.

1 November 1943: Joseph Stalin, (US President) Franklin Roosevelt and one US Allied country sign the Moscow Declaration. Because of the latter US Allied country has suspicions that the Jews are exaggerating German atrocities, the declaration omits references to gas chambers.

Also, while promising post campaign justice for murders, it doesn’t mention the Jewish situation any manner.

3 November 1943: 300 hundred Jews at Borki (Poland) near Chelm are put to work exhuming 30,000 corpses, mostly Soviet POW’s taken prisoner and murdered late in 1941. The bodies are burned on massive pyres.

Jacob Katz, a Jewish cleaner at the Bundzyn (Poland) concentration camp, rescues seven elderly Jews by hiding them beneath mattresses.

Riccardo Pacifici, rabbi of Genoa (Italy), is deported to Auschwitz along with 200 members of his congregation and 100 Jewish refugees from Northern Europe.

Anti-Nazi Catholic priest Bernhard Lictenberg dies on his way to internment at the internment at the Dachau (Germany) concentration camp.

“The Jewish woman, when they arrive in the first month of pregnancy, were subjected to abortions. When their pregnancy was near the end, after confinement, the babies were drowned in a bucket of water.” -Marie Vallant-Couturier, a former French Resistance member, testifying before the Nuremberg Tribunal about Auschwitz; 1946. ( Even cases when a child was born, the Magen David was on the babies blanket to identify them for death.)

3-4 November 1943: The Germans undertake Erntefest (Harvest Festival), a planned massacre of Jews of three camps in the Lublin (Poland) area. About 18,000 are murdered at Majdanek, 10,000 at Trawniki and 15,000 at Poniatowa. At Poniatowa, Jews who resist are burned alive in barracks.

4 November 1943: The Germans put down a revolt at a slave-labor camp at Szebnie (Poland). The camp is liquidated; about 3,000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

A Beloved Violin

This finely crafted 19th-century Italian violin belonged to Henry Rosner, a prisoner at the Plaszow (Poland) forced-labor camp that was commanded by the infamous Amon Goeth. Rosner and his brother, Poldek, an accordionist, entertained Goeth and his frequent guest Oskar Schindler, at numerous dinner parties.

Schindler’s fondness for Rosner’s music compelled him to add the entire Rosner family to his famous list of “life;” which included 1,100 workers from his Bruennlitz munitions plant. Although the violin never made it to the factory, Rosner was still reunited with his beloved instrument-and his wife-after the Nazi campaign.

It has been said; Rosner resumed his previous profession and performed in New York hotels. Prior to the Nazi campaign as early as 1939, he played in well-known cafes, hotels, and resorts all over Europe.

Sadly the violen again came to silence, for Rosner passed away on 3 December 1995, he was 90-years-old.

9 November 1943: 200 Jews from Venice (Italy) are deported to Auschwitz. 400 Jews from Florence and Bologna (Italy) are deported to Auschwitz.

At the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto, Council of Elders head Jacob Edelstein and three other Jews are accused of saving 55 of the ghetto’s Jews from deportation by falsifying population reports.

US Senator Guy Gillette and Representatives Will Rogers Jr. [(Pictured) Will Rogers Jr., followed in his father "Senior's" footsteps as an actor, a newspaper owner, a writer, a political commentator, a humorist and a US Representative from 3 January 1943 t0 23 May 1944; he passed away on 9 July 1993.] of Oklahoma and Joseph Baldwin introduce a resolution into Congress calling upon US President Franklin Roosevelt to establish “a commission of diplomatic, economic and military experts to formulate and effectuate a plan of action to save the surviving Jewish people of Europe.” This resolution will serve as the basis of the “War” Refugee Board (WRB).

The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) is founded

10 November 1943: Anti-Nazi German Protestant theologian Karl Friedrich Stellbrink is executed at Hamburg (Germany).

Author Liebehenschel replaces Rudolf Hoss as commandant at Auschwitz.

11 November 1943: At Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto, on the 25th anniversary of Germany’s defeat in World War 1, the Germans assemble all 47,000 Jews in a large square for an ill-organized census. It last for 18 hours in a chilly rain. Some of the Jews die during the census or soon after.

13 November 1943: A Jew named Fritz Lustig makes an unsuccessful attempt to escape from the Auschwitz- Birkenau death camp.

14 November 1943: Jews from Ferrara (Italy) are deported to Auschwitz.

16 November 1943: Ill Jewish slave laborers at the Skarzysko-Kamienna (Poland) ammunition factory, who are lured from their barracks by Ukrainian guards and SS men promising soup, are gunned down or loaded onto trucks and taken to an execution site elsewhere in the camp.

A concrete wall topped with broken glass and steel spikes surrounds part of the Vught concentration camp, the main transit station for Jews in the southern portion of the Netherlands.

Vught was established in December 1942 and received its first prisoners the following month.

While some considered the conditions in Vught camp not as bad as those in other places in Eastern Europe, the fact remains that Vught functioned as a transfer station to Westerbork concentration camp, an important way station on the one-way journey to the infamous Auschwitz-Birkenau and usually death; for it must be remembered 1.1 million to 1.6 million Jews died, at Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp.

As to the Vught wall itself, with its concrete, broken glass and spikes; one can not help thinking of the deceptive wall the US created well over a hundred years ago, in an attempt create the horrendous disembowelment of religious persecution towards Jews and Muslims; even well now, into the twenty-first century. But what is even more important, is to see beyond that deceptive wall to the truth of what has actually occurred towards these two religious groups and the world will be vastly better for all who live!

17 November 1943: 995 Dutch Jews arrive at Auschwitz; 531, including children are immediately gassed.

Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu orders his cabinet to resist German efforts to exterminate Jews in the Transnistria region.

19 November 1943: Prisoners from Sonderkommando 1005, a corpse-burning unit revolt at the Janowska (Ukraine), slave-labor camp near Lvov. A leader of the uprising, Leon Weliczker is one of the few who survive.

One thousand Jews are shot at the Jewish cemetery outside Sandomierz (Poland).

30 November 1943: Italy’s Interior Ministry orders the concentration of all Jews in Camps.

Reich Sterilization and the Gypsy’s

Emaciated Gypsy boys selected for a cruel surgery to remove their penises and testicles are catalogued by the Auschwitz camera.

Hitler was keenly interested in sterilization of those he considered “undesirables” as a way to control unwanted population growth. A side benefit from Hitler’s perspective was that sterilized subjects could be useful as laborers for the Reich.

Nazi camp physicians undertook the surgeries and other procedures with vigor. Besides being profoundly unethical, medical experimentation of this sort was often clumsy and even remotely grounded on legitimate science. Instead Auschwitz’s Dr. Josef Mengele and other camp surgeons were motivated by an amoral “what if?” mentality; that is, by a deadly curiosity about what would happen to a human being if a particular procedure were performed.

To such doctors, human suffering was irrelevant.

The majority of patients that underwent the various macabre experiments died; either during the procedure or shortly after, it is most probable these boys died.

As to Gypsy’s in general, the Nazis considered them as inferior as the Nazis felt about the Jews; but after 1945, the pressure of persecution eased up somewhat for the Gypsy‘s.

Early December 1943: US Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau instructs assistants Randolph Paul and John W. Pehle to investigate the State Department’s handling of the Jewish refugee issue.

2 December 1943: 100 Jews from Vienna arrive at Auschwitz.

12 December 1943: The chairman of the Jewish Council in Wlodzimierz Wolynski (Poland), the sight of the street massacres in 1942, assures the remaining ghetto residents that they will be safe. As of the very next day on 13 December, the Jewish community is liquidated.

17 December 1943: Jews are executed at Kovno (Lithuania), as a reprisal for an escape of several Jews from the ghetto.

21 December1943: Hersz Kurcweig, a Jew and Stanislaw Dorosiewicz, a non-Jew escape from Auschwitz after killing an SS guard.

22 December 1943: The Gestapo discovers 62 Jews hiding in a cellar of a building on Krolewska Street in Warsaw.

US Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau confronts US Assistant Secretary of State Breckinridge long, telling him face to face that “the impression is all around you, particular, are Anti-Semitic!”

23 December 1943: The Jewish community at Pinsk (Poland) is liquidated.

US Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau is informed by his staff that, “when you get through with it, the [US State Department] attitude to date is no different from Hitler’s attitude.”

24 December 1943: Of 64 Jews who escape the Ninth Fort near Kovno (Lithuania), 32 are quickly recaptured, 5 are shot down and 8 more are captured near Kovno Ghetto. 19 enter the ghetto, but one, Rabbi Gabriel Shusterman dies of frostbite.

The Ninth Fort was a prison and killing site in Kovno ( Lithuania), where at least 9,000 Jews were murdered by Germans and Lithuanians in October 1941. This young Jewish man, Abe Diskont, was one of 64 prisoners who escaped from the Ninth Fort on Christmas Eve, 1943.

He later joined partisans and died in battle against the Germans in 1944.

The SS had originally assigned them to exhume and burn the remains of Jews the SS had shot at the fort. The exhumations and burning were part of Aktion 1005, the systematic attempt to eliminate the evidence of mass murder in Eastern Europe. Nineteen of the escapees, hide in Kovno and documented German efforts to destroy the evidence of mass killings at the Ninth Fort.

At Borki (Poland), 60 Jews working on an exhumation squad attempt to escape through a tunnel, but few of them are successful.

“There were rats as big as cats running about gnawing the corpses and even attacking the dying, who had not enough strength left to chase them away… [Inside] the straw mattresses were dirty and were changed only when absolutely rotten. The bedding was full of lice that one could see them swarming like ants.” -Marie-Valliant-Couturier, a French Resistance member imprisoned at Auschwitz.

The SS staff of the Neuengamme (Germany) concentration camp, celebrates Christmas with their families in what is believed to be 1943 or 1944. Their acquisitive campaign and the “Final Solution” did not seem to prevent the camp staff from taking time from their duties to share the spirit of the season.

25 December 1943: Trucks carrying naked Jewish women make regular trips to the gas chamber at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Any woman who leaps from the truck is immediately shot down.

Late 1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders that the extermination camp at Belzec be razed, as has been done at Sobibor and Treblinka death camps. At all three camps, the land is to be plowed under and settled by Ukrainians.

By March 1943 almost all of the Jews living in the Generalgouvernement had been killed. Thus, Heinrich Himmler decided to wind down Operation Reinhard (the extermination of Jews in the area), late 1943.

In August, the last 25,000 Jews living in the Bialystok Ghetto were transported to Treblinka, where they were murdered. Then, the Nazis finally closed and then razed it in order to cover up their crimes.

When the Soviets arrived in the region in about July 1944, they discovered that a Ukrainian peasant family had moved into a house (pictured) that had been built on the camp's grounds by the SS. The Soviet Army forced the Ukrainians to move and then burned the house.

1944: The Nazi extermination industry it at its peak and is staffed by 47,000 full-time staff and well-trained in the art of murder.

Working life expectancy at I.G. Farben’s Banawerk (Buna works) synthetic-rubber and oil plant at Auschwitz (Poland) is three to four months.

In coal mines, one month.

King Gustav of Sweden and Pope Pius XII under pressure from Gustav, pressures Hungary to halt deportations of Jews.

Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, a book by jurist Raphael Lemkin, describes Nazi rule and the murder of Jews as a return to Barbarism. Lemkin coins the word “genocide,” from the Greek genos (nation/people) and cide (to kill).

Early 1944: The Nazi Propaganda Ministry releases a film, The Fuhrer Gives the Jews a Town ( German title, "Der Fuehrer Schenkt den Juden eine Stadt"), a largely fabricated look at the alleged good life enjoyed by Jews in the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia).

Allegedly and excerpt from the movie:

Bullenhuser Damm School Murders

This former school known as Schule Bullenhuser Damm was partly destroyed during air raids, it was a sub camp of the Neuengamme concentration camp which was established in October 1944.

The SS physician Kurt Heißmeyer had done medical experiments on Soviet prisoners of war at the Neuengamme camp. He ordered 20 Jewish children (10 boys and 10 girls) from Auschwitz extermination camp to continue his experiments. His purpose had been to inject tuberculosis bacteria and to excise the axillary lymph nodes.

US allied troops entered Hamburg as the children and their orderly were brought into the basement of the Bullenhuser Damm school. SS physician Alfred Trzebinski injected morphine into the children, and they were hanged in the boiler room. That same night an additional 28 adults, mostly Soviet prisoners of war, were also killed.

List of the children

Marek James, a boy, 6 years of age, from Radom, Poland.
H. Wassermann, a girl, 8, Poland.
Roman Witonski, 6, and his
sister Eleonora, 5, from Radom, Poland.
R. Zeller, a 12 year old boy from Poland.
Eduard Hornemann, 12, and his brother
Alexander, 9, from Eindhoven, from the Netherlands.
Riwka Herszberg, 7, girl
Georges André Kohn, 12, a boy from Paris, France.
Jacqueline Morgenstern, 12, girl, from Paris.
Ruchla Zylberberg, 8, a girl.
Edouard Reichenbaum, a boy, 10.
Mania Altman, 5, from Radom in Poland.
Sergio de Simone, 7, a boy from Naples, Italy.
Marek Steinbaum, 10.
W. Junglieb, a 12 years old boy.
S. Goldinger, a girl, 11.
Lelka Birnbaum, a girl, 12.
Lola Kugerman, 12.
B. Mekler, 11, a girl.

“When You Stand Here, Be Silent. When You Leave Here, Be Not Silent.”
-Memorial plaque to the murdered Jewish children at Bullenhuser Damm School at the former camp at Neuengamme (Germany)

13 January 1944: Two US Treasury Deportment Officials-Josiah Dubois and Randolph-threaten to resign and make public the report on their investigation into the US State Departments scandalous activities in regards to the Jews. The report “originally entitled “Report of the Secretary [of the Treasury] on the Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews.” The report indicts officials of the US State Department for their “willful attempts to prevent action from being taken to rescue Jews from Hitler.”

18 January 1944: 300 Jews hiding in forests near Buczacz (Ukraine) are surrounded by Nazi tanks and killed.

20 January 1944: Jews deported from Drancy (Occupied-France) transit camp arrive at Auschwitz.

22 January 1944: Under pressure, US President Franklin Roosevelt creates the War Refugee Board.

US and their Allied troops during “Operation Shingle” arrive on the beach of Anzio (Italy).

25 January 1944: Hans Frank, governor-general of Occupied-Poland notes in his diary that approximately 100,000 Jews remain in the region under his control, down by 3,400,000 from the end of 1941.

29 January 1944: A Nazi court in Krakow (Poland), sentences five Poles to death for aiding Jews. One of the accused, Kazimierz Jozefek, is hanged in the public square.

30 January 1944: 700 Jews are deported from Milan (Italy) to Auschwitz.

Those who did not die from Nazi medical experimentation often carried the effects with them forever. This woman, imprisoned during the war in the Ravensbrück (Germany), concentration camp, shows the results of an operation to remove the calf muscle of her right leg. Part of a project led by Dr. Karl Gebhardt, the experimenters even amputated limbs of prisoners for the supposed benefit of injured soldiers. Almost half of the 24 women who endured these particular experiments died.

February 1944: Adam Goetz, a Hamburg engineer instrumental in the development of dirigibles, dies in the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto.

4 February 1944: 365 Jews from Salonika (Greece) who are under the protection of the Spanish government, leave the concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen (Germany), for Spain and safety.

8 February 1944: 1,015 Jews are deported from Holland to Auschwitz. Among the deportees are children sick with scarlet fever and diphtheria.

10 February 1944: 1,015 Jews on a deportation train arrives at Auschwitz from Holland, 800-including all of the children-are immediately gassed. 1,229 Jews are deported from Westerbork (Holland) to Auschwitz.

With his body held taut by two Kapos, a camp prisoner awaits the sting of the lash on his bare back. Even the slightest offense could lead to harsh penalties. Punishment, like this whipping, could so weaken and disorinentate for a little time an inmate that he could no longer work, and failure to work meant death. Also, this type of torture can fracture bones and cause excessive bleeding on the inflicted wounds, two victims (who were held in the US against their will) of this type of torture said, "the blood runs like a river" and "rips your skin like a knife going through soft butter;" one of the victims was eventually murdered, while the other survived. This drawing by Hungarian artist Gyorgy Kadar, who survived five camps, powerfully conveys the inmate's suffering and anguish. Very similar maltreatment has been inflicted upon US political hostages.

14 February 1944: Reichsmarschall Hermann Goring wires Minister of Armaments and Munitions Albert Speer. He asks for as many concentration camp inmates as possible for us as salve laborers in an air-armament factories.

20-25 February 1944: In the Big Week (Operation Argument), American and one of their Allied air units engages the Luftwaffe (German flyers).

24 February 1944: Anticipating escapes, the SS deports 200 sonderkommando prisoners from Auschwitz death camp at Majdanek (Poland) where all 200 are shot.

March 1944: German forces invade Hungary. The kitchen-utensil factory of industrialist Oskar Schindler is nearby and Schindler repeatedly intercedes with local authorities to prevent the arrests and deportations of his Jewish employees.

300 Jewish orphans from the Transnistria region of Romania are given safe passage to “Palestine.”

Jews on the island of Rab, off the coast of Dalmatia (Serbia) are arrested and deported to Auschwitz.

Germans begin to evacuate Jewish concentration camp inmates to the west as Soviets advance from the east. The Reich orders the destruction of camp documents and corpses.

With the inflated title of Reichgesundheitsführer (Reich Health Leader), Leonardo Conti led the Nazi health program. In that role, he ordered the murder of adult mental patients. To inspire other physicians to follow his lead, Conti gave the first lethal injections himself. An early member of the Nazi Party, Conti founded the Ärztebund (National Socialist Physicians' League) before Hitler named him the nation's chief physician in 1939. Captured at the end of the war and held for trial in Nuremberg, he chose suicide rather than answer for the thousands of Euthanasia "mercy killings" he had ordered. Their is similar cases, of Euthanasia practices being used for the sick and elderly in the US; with an eyewitness account. The most common practice is Morphine overdosing towards the older and or ill patient.

4 March 1944: Four Jewish women discovered in the “Aryan” section of Warsaw are murdered by Germans. Also killed are 80 non-Jewish Poles. The bodies of the dead, as well as people who are still living are torched.

5 March 1944: Max Jacob (pictured), 60, a baptized Catholic forced to wear the Yellow Star, dies at Drancy (Occupied-France), of bronchial pneumonia while waiting deportation. Jacob, a godson to Pablo Picasso, was a noted poet.

7 March 1944: Polish historian and Warsaw Ghetto archivist Emanuel Ringelblum is among 38 Jews captured by the Gestapo in a bunker in the “Aryan” section of Warsaw. Ringelblum and his family are tortured and killed.

Poet David Vogel is deported from Drancy (Occupied-France) to Auschwitz. Children on the same transport include 17-year-old Henriette Hess and her 9-year-old brother, Roger. Both are deported without parents.

3,800 Czech Jews are gassed at Auschwitz just days after a stage-managed camp tour for the benefit of a visiting Red Cross delegation, during which camp administrators offered assurances of inmate safety.

During the gassing, those Jews who resist with bare hands are driven into the gas chamber with rifle butts and flamethrowers. They die singing the Czech national anthem and “Hatikvah,” later the national anthem of Israel.

Eleven pairs of twins are spared for “research” experiments by Dr. Josef Mengele.

1,500 Jews are deported from Drancy (Occupied-France), to Auschwitz.

Anne Frank observes that “he who has courage and faith will never perish in misery!”

The Village That Cared

During the winter of 1940-41, Magda Trocmé answered a knock at her door. There stood a frightened woman who identified herself as a German Jew. She had heard that help might be found in Le Chambon. Magda Trocmé said, "Come in."

Le Chambon is a mountain village in south-central France. Many of the villagers were descendants of Huguenots, who had fled to the high plateau so they could practice their Protestant Christianity without fear of punishment. The residents' long-standing distrust of authority and tradition of listening to Christian conscience inspired them to help the Jews.

Five thousand persecuted Jews found refuge in Le Chambon, but the village's response did not take place overnight. The seeds of the people's bravery and selflessness had been growing for years because André Trocmé, the community's Protestant minister, had preached Christianity's basic lessons: peace, understanding, and love. His was a message of nonviolence, but a nonviolence that rejected inaction and deplored injustice. The people of Le Chambon responded.

Though hiding Jews was a crime punishable by death, the people of Le Chambon opened their doors. "None of us thought that we were heroes," Magda Trocmé said. "We were just people trying to do our best."

15 March- 2 April 1944: The Germans undertake a sweeping search for Jews on mainland Greece for deportation to Auschwitz.

On March 19, 1944, the Nazis occupied Hungary and began to draw up plans for the annihilation of that country's 725,000 Jews, who had been largely unmolested until then. Most of these Jews were deported to Auschwitz, the largest of the death camps. This map shows the police districts into which the Nazis divided Hungary for the purpose of efficiently transporting the nation's Jews.

19 March 1944: German control is imposed in Hungary, putting 725,000 more Jews directly into German hands, Sonderkommando Eichmann SS Units, charged with purging Hungary of Jews, begin deportations.

200 Jewish doctors and lawyers randomly selected from telephone directory in Hungary are deported to the Mauthausen (Austria) concentration camp.

The Majdanek death camp is evacuated as Soviet troops approach. Sick prisoners are transported to Auschwitz and gassed.

Spring 1944: The camp system near Stuttof (Germany) is enlarged to include 74 satellite camps.

22 March 1944: Led by Shlomo Kushnir, nearly 100 Jews escape the labor camp at Koldichevo (Belorussia). Rebels leave behind an explosive charge, which kills ten SS guards. Most escapees avoid capture and join a resistance group. Kushnir commits suicide after being captured.

23 March 1944: In the Bialystok region (Poland), a Jewish partisan group destroys a German military train transporting armed cars to the Eastern Front.

Nearly 6,500 Jews from Greece, including 1,687 from Janina are deported to Auschwitz.

24 March 1944: 800 Jews from Athens (Greece) are murdered as Auschwitz.

Near the catacombs outside Ardea (Italy), near Rome, Germans kill 335 civilians in the Ardeatine Caves as a reprisal for anti-Nazi resistance; more than 250 of the victims are Catholic, 78 are Jewish.

The Ardeatine Caves entrance were the massacre occurred previously on 24 March 1944.

US President Franklin Roosevelt warns publicly that perpetrators of war crimes will not escape punishment.

27 March 1944: 1,000 Jews are deported from Drancy (Occupied-France) to Auschwitz.

27-28 March 1944: In the Samaria (Lithuania) camp and in nearby Kovno, all Jewish children are rounded up and murdered.

Among the few survivors is 5-year-old Zahar Kaplanas, who is smuggled to safety in a sack carried by a Lithuanian non-Jew.

One woman, told by a German that she may keep one of her three children, being unable to choose, watches as all three are trucked away.

This SS Death's Head (also known as "SS Crusher Skull") emblem was found at Dachau (Germany) concentration camp which exemplifies the deadly cruelty of those who chose to wear it. Prior to 1945, Dachau had expanded with thousands of inmates from camps in the East.

Disease and death ruled the camp, turning skulls and bones into the dominating reality of the camp.

31 March 1944: SS functionary Adolf Eichmann fraudulently assures leading Hungarian Jews that German-Jewish relation will be normalized after the campaign.

April 1944: At burial pits at Ponary (Lithuania), Isaac Dogin, one of the Jews ordered to exhume and bur corpses of murdered Jews, uncovers the moldering bodies of his wife, his three sisters and his three nieces.

900 Jewish orphans from Transnistria region of Romania are given safe passage to “Palestine.”

Max Josef Metzger, a German-Catholic priest whose 1942 plea for a new German government had been intercepted by the Gestapo; he is executed at Brandenburg (Germany).

A synthetic fuel plant at Blechhammer (Poland) is staffed with 5,500 Jewish slave laborers when it opened in 1942, now has just 4,000 left alive. This month, Blechhammer is designated Auschwitz IV.

4 April 1944: A Mosquito plane from 60 Photo Recon Squadron of the South African Air Force flew out of Foggia base in Southern Italy to photograph the IG Farben factory (oil and rubber plant); it was only 3 miles from Auschwitz’s main camp. In order to ensure complete coverage of the target area, it was considered common practice to start the camera rolling ahead of time, and stop it slightly over time. As a result, the Auschwitz camp was photographed for the first time. While, the US has claimed they were the first to take the air-reconnaissance photo’s, apparently they are mistaken.

5 April 1944: 835 Jews deported from Fossoli (Italy) to Auschwitz, 692 are gassed upon arrival. Victims include 71-year-old Sra Klein and a 5-year-old Rosetta Scaramella.

6 April 1944: 3,000 German troops fan out across the “Aryan” section of Warsaw (Poland), to root out fugitive Jews. 70 men and 30 women are arrested and will be murdered.

A Gestapo unit headed by Klaus Barbie searches the Children’s Home at Izieu (Occupied-France), near the Swiss border, where they arrests 10 nurses and 43 Jewish children. Most are transported to Drancy (France), then unto Auschwitz. One of the children taken to Auschwitz is 11-uear-old Liliane Berenstein, who writes a letter to God in which she pleads for the return of her parents.

8 April 1944: On this first night of Passover, Polish rabbi Mosze Friedman, newly arrived at Auschwitz, grabs an SS lieutenant and excoriates him for his crimes, promising the eternal existence of the Jews and imminent destruction of Nazism.

“I saw many internees cling to their human dignity to the very end. The Nazis succeeded in degrading them physically, but they could not debase them morally. Because of these few, I have not entirely lost my faith in mankind. If, even in the jungle of Birkenau, all were not necessarily inhuman to their fellowman, then there is hope indeed.”
-Olga Lengyel, Auschwitz Survivor

In 1944, Olga was herded, along with her mother, father, husband, and two sons, into a cattle car and taken to Auschwitz where, in a short time, she lost her entire family. A trained physician's assistant, Olga was assigned to work in the Auschwitz infirmary where she found ways to assist a French underground in the demolition of a crematory oven. In January 1945, as the Russian army approached Auschwitz, Olga escaped, making her way to Odessa and to freedom.

She wrote about her experiences in the Holocaust in her autobiography from the period, Five Chimneys, first published in 1947. Olga founded the
Memorial library, in New York City. Olga died in 2001 at the age of 90.

9 April 1944: Rudolf Vrba then age 19 and his friend, Alfred Wetzler, then age 26, managed to escape from Auschwitz. The two men spent eleven days walking and hiding before they got back to Slovakia. Vrba and Wetzler made contact with the local Jewish Council. They provided details of the Holocaust that was taking place in Eastern Europe. They also gave an estimate of the number of Jews killed in Auschwitz between June 1942 and April 1944: about 1.75 million. In June 1944, the 32-page Vrba-Wetzler Report was published. It was the first eyewitness accounts of the “Final Solution” as well as the Nazi intention to exterminate Hungarian Jews.

10 April 1944: The Soviet Army captures, Odessa (Ukraine).

13 April 1944: 1,500 Jews are deported from Drancy (Occupied-France) to Auschwitz. One survivor of this group, is 16-year-old Simone Jacob; who would later grow-up to become France’s Minister of health (as Simone Veil) and in 1979, president of the European Parliament at Strasbourg (France) .

Some of the bodies of those murdered at Ponary

15 April 1944: Jewish slave laborers forced to exhume corpses of murdered Jews and Soviet POW’s at Ponary (Lithuania) killing ground, near Vilna, mount and escape attempt. Of the 40 who manages to enter the secret tunnel dug into the side of the burial pit, 15 reach nearby woods.

By 20 April 1944, The 29 slave laborers that were left behind after the partially successful escape from Ponary, are shot by the SS overseers.

In Hungary, tens of thousands of Jews are forced from their homes and into ghettos.

22 April 1944: 50 children are among 250 Jews and Soviet POW’s laboring at a Siemens Schuckert electrical-instruments plant at Bobrek (Poland). Siemens Schuckert Later was incorporated into the
Siemens AG in 1966. Which their has also been claims, that this company and the US General Electric Company were associated during this period.

28 April 1944: Adolf Eichmann dispatches the first 1,500 Jewish slave laborers from Hungary to arms factories in and near Auschwitz.

29 April 1944: The first deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz occurs at Kistarcsa.

1,004 Jews are deported from Drancy (France), transport camp to Auschwitz, including Yiddish poet Itzhak Katzenelson and his eldest son.

30 April 1944: 2,000 "able-bodied" Jews are deported from Topolya (Hungary), to Auschwitz.

May 1944: Christian Wirth, SS Sturmbannfuhrerand commandant of the Belzec death camp (Poland), is assassinated by partisans in Fiume (Yugoslavia).

SS Major Christian Wirth initiated the use of poison gas to kill "euthanasia" victims. He administered the Belzec, Treblinka, and Sobibór death camps. At Belzec, he held up a large can full of teeth taken from murdered Jews. "See for yourself the weight of that gold!" he boasted. "It's only from yesterday and the day before. You can't imagine what we find every day--dollars, diamonds, gold!" Later in the Nazi Campaign he was put in charge of the Italian concentration camp La Risiera di San Sabba, where he arranged 22 transports of deportees to Auschwitz. He was killed by partisans near Fiume (Yugoslavia), in May 1944.

The Jewish ghetto at Lodz (Poland) is liquidated.

In May 1944, this elderly Hungarian woman and her four grandchildren trudged to the Auschwitz gas chambers. They were among the first of approximately 400,000 Hungarian Jews to perish in Auschwitz.

As mass deportations of Jews from Hungary to death camps begins, hundreds of Hungarian Jews at Satoraljaujhely and Miskolc are shot for refusing to board trains destined to Auschwitz.

33,000 Jews from Munkacs (Hungary) are killed at Auschwitz.

Carefully arranged and stored, these sets of china had once been the pride of Jewish families in Prague (Czechoslovakia). They formed part of a massive collection of goods, including books and furniture, plundered by the Nazis from one of Europe's most renowned Jewish communities, and intended as part of a collection in the proposed Central Museum of the Extinguished Jewish Race. Sadly, the goods outlived many of their owners. (Photo: Yad Vashem)

3 May 1944: At Gleiwitz (Poland) near Auschwitz, Germans open slave-labor plant for the production of “black smoke” for use in smoke screens.

13 May 1944: The Soviet Army captures Sevastopol (Ukraine).

Photograph taken at Auschwitz-Birkenau, about 1944.

Throughout the Nazi camp system, inmate tattoo numbers gain a new series, prefaced with the letter “A.” The intention is to conceal the number of prisoners at Auschwitz.

15 May 1944: Germans begin deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz from Ruthenia and northern Transylvania.

878 Jews are deported from Drancy (Occupied-France), to the Reval (Estonia) slave-labor camp.

15 May -9 July 1944: More than 430,000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz. Up to a 100 are crammed into individual boxcars, with a single water bucket and a single waste bucket. Suicide and insanity are rampant during transport due to the conditions.

18 May 1944: A deportation train from Paris arrives at Kovno (Lithuania). As of the next day, 19 May 1944, the Jews that were deported from Paris to Kovno (Lithuania) are machine-gunned by guards in a fenced enclosure after some of the prisoners attack SS troops.

Deportations from thereseinstadt (Czechoslovakia), to Auschwitz end with the transport of 2,500 Jews.

19 May 1944: The Germans transport Hungarian Jew Joel Brand to Turkey with a proposal from Adolf Eichmann that if the US and their Allies would exchange 10,000 trucks, large quantities of soap, tea, and coffee for one million Eastern European Jews who were otherwise destined for Auschwitz. Eichmann calls it “blood for trucks.”

These negotiations, described by The Times as one of the "most loathsome" stories of the time, it became known as the "blood for goods" proposal. 'Nothing came of it and historians can only guess whether Eichmann's offer was genuine.'

Brand gets arrested and the US allied foreign Middle East minister, comments, “What shall I do with those million Jews?”

21 May 1944: The Gestapo imprisons all 260 Jews at Canea (Crete) at Etymon (Crete).

22-27 May 1944: Jews readied for rail transport from Munkacs (Ukraine) and from the Hungarian town of Satoraljaujhely resist being loaded. Some are shot.

"Selection" on the Judenrampe, Auschwitz, May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant slave labor; to the left, the gas chambers. This image shows the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia, many of them from the Berehov ghetto. It was taken by Ernst Hofmann or Bernhard Walter of the SS. (Photo: Yad Vashem).

25 May 1944: At Auschwitz, Hungarian Jews being led to the gas chambers scatter but are shot down by SS.

27 May 1944: Two Jews, Arnost Rosin of Czechoslovakia and Czeslaw Mordowicz of Poland escape from Auschwitz.

28 May 1944: In a repeat of an incident of 28 May, Jews being led to the gas chambers at Auschwitz run for nearby woods, but are shot down.

29 May 1944: Several thousand Jews from Baja (Hungary) arrive at the German frontier after a three and half day rail journey; 55 are dead and about 200 had gone insane during such a long trip and extreme substandard conditions.

Elie Wiesel, age 15, shortly before deportation.

“Around us, everyone was weeping. Someone began to recite the Kaddish, the prayer for the dead. I do not know if it has ever happened before, in the long history of the Jews, that people have ever recited the prayer for the dead themselves.” -Elie Wiesel, recalling what he experienced as a teenager fresh off a transport train at Auschwitz in spring 1944. Wiesel, was from Sighet (Hungary).

Late May 1944: At the Auschwitz rail junction, German soldiers who encounter a sealed deportation train carrying Hungarian Jews to Birkenau death camp, defy threats of SS guards and give food and water to the pleading prisoners.

An SS man who has fallen in love with a Jewish girl manages for months to shunt her away from the gas chambers, but when the romance is discovered, both are executed.

31 May 1944: Near the German border, a Hungarian deportation train stops for the removal of 42 corpses.

SS Brigadier General Edmund Veesenmayer reports to Berlin that 204,312 Jews have been deported from Hungary.

Dutch Jews are deported in early June 1944. From March to September 1944, the Nazis deported several hundred Dutch Jews each month, with 1,019 aboard the final train (which included Anne Frank) in September. Of the 107,000 Jews deported from the Netherlands, only 5,200 survived the Holocaust.

1 June 1944: With 55,000 unused US quota slots from Occupied Europe, US President Franklin Roosevelt agrees to allow from 982 to 1,000 Jewish refugees into the US. They are to be housed at Fort Ontario “internment” camp, in Oswego, New York; described by some as similar to the US Japanese camps.

'This fence separated refugees from Europe from the Oswego community during "the Nazi campaign." Refugees recounted being afraid at first because the former Army camp looked like a concentration camp.'

2 June 1944: An agency representative requests the bombing of rail lines that lead to Auschwitz.

The US and Allies begin a bombing operation (Operation Frantic) in the Balkans, the alleged goal of distracting the Germans from upcoming US and Allied landings in Occupied-France. Bombing routes over fly the railway lines leading from Hungary to Auschwitz.

The operation lasts four months, during the deportations of tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.

The railway lines carrying the Jews are never targeted.

4 June 1944: US and their allies "liberate" Rome. 'The Italian campaign was intended as a shortcut for US and their allied forces into Germany, but it resulted in a long, hard operation against the Germans.'

6 June 1944: All 1800 Jews on the island of Corfu, west of Greece, are arrested by the Gestapo and deported to Auschwitz; where 1,600 are gassed and the remaining 200 assigned to forced labor.

A German deportation ship with approximately 260 Canean Jews aboard is sunk of the coast of Crete. Latter-day accounts conflict as to the details: In one version, the ship carried the corpses of Jews murdered by the Nazis, who set the ship afloat and sank it to destroy evidence of the crime. In another version, the ship was bound for Auschwitz, but was torpedoed and sunk by a US allied submarine. Besides the Jewish people, the ship may have carried 300 Italian POW’s and 400 Greek civilians.

US and their allies land on the beaches of Normandy (France), which was claimed as the US and their allies first phase into Europe. When the Germans hear of the news and it gets circulated though the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto, a search is mounted for “illegal” radios.

7 June 1944: The first phase of the deportations of Hungarian Jews is complete. Nearly 290,000 Jews have been killed in 23 days.

10 June 1944: In the French village of Oradour-sur-Glane, Germans kills 642 residents as revenge for the killing of an SS officer by a Resistance sniper. Women and children are burned alive in a church and the men are machine-gunned. Of the 642 victims, seven are Jewish refugees who had escaped Auschwitz by living with sympathetic Oradour-sur-Glane villagers. Included among the dead is 8-year-old Serge Bergman.

These 38 schoolgirls were among the 634 victims murdered by the SS regiment Der Führer on 10 June 1944, at Oradour-sur-Glane, France.

11-16 June 1944: German ship an additional 50,805 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.

14 June 1944: 2,000 Jews are deported from Corfu (Greece) to Auschwitz.

Extra food was, to say the least, a significant event in the daily lives of starved camp inmates. "Dividing the Bread in the Concentration Camp," a painting by Plaszow labor-camp survivor Joseph Bau, suggests the keen interest roused by unexpected windfalls.


We played, we laughed
we were loved.
We were ripped from the arms of our
parents and thrown into the fire.
We were nothing more than children.
We had a future. We were going to be
lawyers, rabbis, wives, teachers, mothers.
We had dreams, then we had no hope.
We were taken away in the dead of night
like cattle in cars, no air to breathe
smothering, crying, starving, dying.
Separated from the world to be no more.
From the ashes, hear our plea.
This atrocity to mankind can not happen again.
Remember us, for we were the children
whose dreams and lives were stolen away.

-Barbara Sonek

16 June 1944: Residents of the Jewish ghetto at Lodz (Poland) are notified of “voluntary registration for labor outside the ghetto.” In truth, there is no work, but only death at the Chelmno (Poland) extermination camp; were the Germans plan to murder 3,000 Jews a week for three weeks.

German troops begin to pull back from the Douve River (France).

17-24 June 1944: The Jews of Budapest (Hungary) are confined to special marked “Jewish buildings.”

Summer 1944: More than 500 Jews are being protected by industrialist Oskar Schindler.

22 June 1944: The Soviet Army launches a 300 mile long offensive along the Baltic and Belorussia. The initial target is Vitebsk (Belorussia), located on the Riga-Moscow rail line.

The SS closes the concentration camp at Riga-Kaiserwald (Latvia).

23 June 1944: Operations resume at the Chelmno death camp.

The US and their allies learn that more than 430,000 Hungarian Jews have been deported to Auschwitz and murdered since May. There are about 300,000 Jews left alive in Hungary. Still, the plight of Europe’s Jews is not nor ever was considered a decisive reason for neither the US nor their Allies ever, being in Europe.

A Red Cross delegation visit’s the Theresienstadt camp/ghetto (Czechoslovakia) and is apparently fooled by the camp’s superficially benign atmosphere. However, the Red Cross almost simultaneously sends an official protest to Hungary about deportations of Hungarian Jews.

24 June 1944: ‘The US Military Air Operations declares that bombing rail lines to Auschwitz is “impracticable” because it could be achieved only by diverting air support from “decisive operations” in progress; so forth., bombing synthetic-oil plants; the fact that many of these plants are located very near to Auschwitz.’

25 June 1944: Pope Pius XII sends a telegram to Admiral Miklos Horthy, regent of Hungary, asking him to stop the deportation “to an unknown destination” of Hungarians because of race. The Pope elevates to use the word “Jew” in his messages.

28 June 1944: As the Soviet Army approaches the concentration camp at Maly Trostinets (Belorussia), near Minsk; regular SS troops replace the non-German SS-auxiliary guards. All surviving prisoners- Jews and non-Jewish Russian civilians-are herded into a barracks that is set ablaze. Any prisoners who manage to exit the burning building are shot. About 20 Jews, who had come to Maly Trostinets from the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia), escape to the woods.

Attesting to the meticulous record keeping of the Nazi doctors, this document dated 29 June 1944 accompanied the head of a corpse of a 12-year-old Gypsy child. Signed by Josef Mengele and sent from the infirmary of the Gypsy camp at Auschwitz, it directed that the head be given further examination.

30 June 1944: The crematoria at Auschwitz are working at full capacity when 2,044 Jews arrive from Corfu and Athens (Greece) arrives. At days end, lightening rods on the crematoria chimneys are warped from the heat generated from the furnaces.

July 1944: The Soviet Army liberates Lvov (Ukraine).

The SS completes the evacuation of the Majdanek death camp.

The SS evacuates the concentration camp at Kovno (Lithuania).

Scavengers robbing corpses at the Ponary killing ground.

2-3 July 1944: 3,000 Jews from Vilna-factory laborers and the town’s remaining Jews-are executed by the SS in nearby Ponary.

3 July 1944: The Soviet Army captures Minsk (Belorussia).

4 July 1944: 250 inmates, most of them French Jews, from Alderney camp on the Occupied Channel Islands are killed by fire from US allied warships while being transported to the mainland.

4-5 July 1944: 2,565 Jews from Papa (Hungary) are sent to Auschwitz just as the Hungarian government is poised to defy Germany and halt deportation. Only 30 of Papa’s 2,800 Jews will survive to 1945.

The first Polish children arrived at Auschwitz in June 1940, but it was in the latter half of 1944 that the greatest number came. Here, a group of Polish children looks out from behind a barbed-wire fence at Auschwitz. Polish and Russian children judged to possess "Aryan" physical qualities--blond hair and blue eyes--were forcibly taken from their parents and sent to offices of the Resettlement Bureau for placement. Approximately 40,000, Polish boys and girls were kidnapped and imprisoned in Auschwitz before being transferred to Germany during the Heuaktion (Hay Action), ordered by Alfred Rosenberg, Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories. The children unusually ended up, as being used as slave laborers in Germany.

7 July 1944 to 19 January 1945: the US and their allies will bomb industrial targets near Auschwitz at least four times, including one resulting in an accidental bombing of Auschwitz, which was only 3 miles from the intended targets.

On 8 July 1944, three weeks before the Soviets liberated the Kovno (Lithuania) Ghetto, the Nazis forced Jews from underground bunkers with dogs, smoke grenades, and firebombs. 2,000 Jews died, while 4,000 others were sent to camps in Germany.

8 July 1944: The Hungarian government declares Berlin that it intends to stop deportations of Jews within its border. Some 300,000 Jews (including more than 170,000 in and around Budapest) are saved; through more than 430,000 have already been murdered.

Marianne Cohn, a Jewish woman active in aiding Jews escape to Switzerland through Occupied-France. The Gestapo in Lyon stopped her in May 1944, near the Swiss border when she tried to go to 28 children and the children were saved.

In prison, she wrote the following poem:

I betray tomorrow, not today
Today, tear my nails
I will not betray!
You do not know the end of my courage.
I know.
You are five hard hands with rings.
You have feet in shoes with nails.
I betray tomorrow. Not today,

I need the night to my mind.
It does not take me less than one night
To deny, to abjure, to betray.
To deny my friends
To abjure the bread and wine,
To betray life
to die.
I betray tomorrow, not today.
The file is under the tile,
The file is not the executioner,
The file is not for the bar,
The file is on my wrist.
Today, I have nothing to say.
Tomorrow I will betray.

-Marianne Cohn

Marianne Cohn was extensively tortured. She was murdered by the Nazis on 8 August 1944, at 22-years-old and her body dumped in a mass grave in Ville-la-Grande (Occupied-France).

8-13 July 1944: Soviet Army troops and partisans during battle kill about 8,000 German soldiers at Vilna.

10 July 1944: 30 Jews are shot after being in the “Aryan” section of Warsaw.

12 July 1944: Many of the 8,000 Jews remaining in the Kovno (Lithuania) Ghetto are killed and the ghetto burned. Nearby, a Lithuanian carpenter shields at least 8 Kovno Jews in a hiding place he had constructed in a cellar.

14 July 1944: Hungarian Jews held at the Reval (Estonia) slave-labor camp are shot in a nearby forest.

Germans murder hundreds of POW’s and partisans at Vercors (Occupied-France).

42 Jewish laboring in workshops at the Pawiak prison in Warsaw are executed by Germans anticipating a Soviet Army assault.

15 July 1944: The Germans Deport 7,000 Jews assembled in the ghetto at Siauliai (Lithuania) to the Stuthtof (Germany) concentration camp. One hundred Jews are left behind or killed where they stand.

By 27 July 1944, Siauliai (Lithuania) is liberated by the Soviet Army, only 12 days after the Germans deported those 7,0000 Jews and murdered those 100 Jews, from Siauliai.


(Above) Prisoners being evacuated from Dachau concentration camp walk along a street in Gruenwald on a forced march (known as Todesmarsche or Death Marches) to an unknown destination; which the death marches were considered to have officially begun 1 April 1945; for their is accounts that they began much earlier.

(Below) Another view of the march, Prisoners received little aid from people in towns they passed through, and in some cases were harassed and assaulted.

These marches became increasingly brutal, deadly and senseless; as camp after camp and ghettos were being evacuated. Starved, ill, wounded and exposed to bitter winter weather, the tormented marching prisoners were kept under constant guard, shot if they faltered or left to die where they lay if they fell from exhaustion; which the moving of prisoners aimlessly and mercilessly continued even when Hitler knew his leadership was coming to an end.

One instance in late January 1945, 50,000 Jews were evacuated on one of these marches from Stutthof camp system, which was situated along the Baltic Sea near Danzig. About 5,000 of them trudged to the Baltic shore, where they were forced into the water and shot by the Germans. The remainder, headed for Lauenburg (eastern Germany); but advancing Soviet troops cut of the route, the prisoners were marched back to Stutthof.

Needless to say, approximately 250,000 and 375,000 prisoners perished during these treacherous death marches.

19 July 1944: 12,000 Hungarian Jews from Kistarcsa are trucked to Rakoscsaba (Hungary), then loaded on trains bound for Auschwitz.

The Hitler Bomb Plot

Hitler, his right hand trembling following the explosion, inspects the aftermath of the 20 July bombing. To Hitler's right stands his ally, Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator who had fallen from power and was rescued from imprisonment on Hitler's orders. Between them is Paul Schmidt, diplomat and Hitler's personal interpreter. Schmidt later wrote a memoir describing Hitler's personality.

On 20 July 1944, Colonel Claus con Stauffenberg initiated, along with other selected members of German High Command and political conservatives detonated a bomb at Adolf Hitler’s “ Wolf Lair” in Rastenberg (Germany), which was near enough to damage Hitler‘s eardrums, injure his right arm, burn him; but not kill him. The failure to eliminate Hitler unleashed an immediate and murderous response.

The ideas of the conspiring soldiers and conservatives who were said to have believed that Hitler was leading Germany to complete ruin by continuing to prosecute the campaign in the face of insurmountable odds.

The conspirators in the assassination attempt to include important individuals within the German military establishment. They sought to end Hitler’s “incompetent, unscrupulous leadership.” Stauffenberg’s direct access to Hitler made him the most likely candidate to assassinate the German leader.

After the bomb was detonated, the conspirators believed that they had successfully killed Hitler. They moved to take over the campaign ministry in Berlin and issue orders to arrest leading Nazis and members of the SS. Hitler’s “miraculous” survival, however, preempted plans to topple the Nazi regime.

Hitler’s “vengeance” was rapid and severe. Participants in the attempted coup were arrested and hanged by wire, dying what was considered most painful deaths. The executions were filmed for Hitler, who reportedly enjoyed watching the men twist in agony.

More than 7,000 additional individuals were captured by the Gestapo, 200 of whom were executed.

21 July 1944: Soviet troops advance towards Brest-Litovsk (Belorussia) and Lublin (Poland).

22 July 1944: Survivors of a 13 July mass execution of Jewish slave laborers at Bialystok (Poland), reach the Soviet Army lines after crawling for nine nights.

The Soviet Army occupies Chelm (Poland), east of Lublin.

German troops withdrawal from Parczew Forest (Poland), the site of numerous Nazi searches for alleged “fugitives.”

Body of Evidence

The Majdanek death camp in eastern Poland was the first of the camps liberated by Soviet troops, on 23 July 1944. Pictured are corpses in Majdanek that the Germans had exhumed, hoping to burn them before the Russians arrived. Often, as was the case here, the Soviet offensives advanced so quickly that the Red Army showed up before the Germans could complete their grisly task.
The Nazis often used incinerators, such as these in Majdanek, to burn the bodies of their victims. In the end, however, the number of victims was too great even for this relatively "efficient" method of corpse disposal.

Partially burnt corpses tell the gruesome story of Maly Trostinets, a village near Minsk (Belorussia), where the final deportees from the Minsk Ghetto met their deaths. With the approach of Soviet forces, the Germans hastily executed prisoners who had been utilized to destroy the evidence of thousands of other deaths. The prisoners, both Jews and non-Jewish Russian civilians, were herded into a barracks, which was set afire. In spite of the Nazis' efforts, a few Jews survived to tell the story of the mass killings at Maly Trostinets and at the neighboring village of Bolshoi Trostinets.

Soviet soldiers and Polish civilians, including a nun, are overcome by grief and horror as they stand among the ruins of the Majdanek death camp. Camp administrators, fearing they would be captured and the purpose of the camp revealed, hastily fled in July 1944 before the advancing Soviet Army arrived, taking along about 1000 prisoners. They set fire to the camp, hoping to destroy the evidence of their crimes, but failed to obliterate the gas chambers, which were testimony to the camp's ghastly purpose.
This mound of bones provides grisly evidence of the death toll at Majdanek. Over its years of operation as a concentration and death camp, around 500,000 inmates were imprisoned there, 360,000 of whom, mostly Jews, died by gas, hanging, starvation, disease, or overwork. When the Soviet Army liberated the camp, they found about 500 inmates still alive.
The Nazis sought not only to exterminate every last Jew in Europe, but also to erase most evidence that the Jews ever existed. This photograph shows two Soviet Army soldiers inspecting a partially burned Torah scroll, a remnant of the culture the Third Reich sought to destroy. The scroll was found when Soviet troops liberated the Majdanek death camp.
Outsiders, for example, were discouraged from going near camps, and it was almost impossible to visit one. This sign at Majdanek, written in both German and Polish, reads: "Attention! Camp grounds. Stop! No photography! You will be shot without warning!"

24 July 1944: Jewish orphans from Paris are seized.

German Army adopts the Nazi salute [Deutscher Gruß (literally: German Greeting) or Hitler Greeting, or in English as the Nazi salute], abandoning the standard military salute.

25 July 1944: Three tankers carrying more than 1,600 Jews from the Italian-held island of Rhodes stop at the island of Kos, where 94 additional Jews are forced aboard; by 30 July, the tankers arrive at Piraeus (Greece), where the Jews are bullied unto trucks and driven to the Haidar detention camp near Athens.

Thirty-one fake postcards from deportees arrive at the Lodz (Poland) Ghetto. The writers claim to have been happily settled, in reality they have been gassed at Chelmno.

Hitler names Joseph Goebbels Reich minister for “total war.”

27 July 1944: Dvinsk (Latvia) is liberated by the Soviets.

The Wehrmacht (Apart of the German Army that helped assist the SS) retreats from Lvov (Ukraine). Only a few of the city’s Jews, many of them in hiding even in sewers, have lived through the German occupation.

28 July 1944: The Soviet Army captures Brest-Litovsk (Belorussia).

29 July 1944: 3,520 Jews are forced on a death march westward from Warsaw; more than 200 die.

30 July 1944: More than 100 Jews are deported from Toulouse (France).

31 July 1944: Among 1,300 Jews deported from Drancy (France) to Auschwitz are 258 Jewish orphans seized in and around Paris 24 July. Upon arrival at the camp, all 500 children and 300 adults are gassed. This is the last transport of Jews from Drancy camp to Auschwitz. In total, 73,853 Jews have been shipped from Drancy to their death at Auschwitz and Sobibor.

Late July 1944: SS General Richard Baer becomes the new Auschwitz commandant. As 46,000 Jewish inmates are gassed and cremated at Auschwitz, the same day.

August 1944: Auschwitz III (a synthetic-rubber plant) is bombed by US and their allied air forces based in Italy.

A Jewish uprising occurs at Castres and Mazamet (France).

By this date, only 4,000 Gypsies remain alive in Greater Germany.

The Red Cross
A Holocaust victim’s depiction of a Red Cross inspection and they won the Nobel Peace Prize for 1944.

During 1944, the International Red Cross made many claims as to their inefficiency towards the Jews. The ICRC even convinced themselves that they could do little to actually rescue the Jews.

They sporadically, send their care parcels that they are so well-known for of food, clothing and medicine to camp inmates. Even these few shipments never reached those in the greatest need.

As to the ICRC visiting a camp, this did not even begin until 1944 with the alleged inspection of Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto. The whole “inspection” was a charade, as the Nazis briefly turned Theresienstadt into a visually comfortable “model” ghetto. The idea was to deceive the Red Cross inspectors, so they would write a favorable report on the conditions; as to the ICRC aspect it was already a flippant commitment anyway.

On a much smaller scale to make the ICRC appear to be aiding the Jews with such as a claim they aided in the halt of some deportations in Hungary, but it has been known that every front that has had dealings with the ICRC was not just frigid, it was right down Parka weather. For the ICRC has always had more of a reputation of a social organization than one of actual commitment of others.

1 August 1944: The Soviet Army liberates Kovno (Lithuania). During the liberation, non-Jewish residents murder a local carpenter Jan Pauvlavicius for having shielded Jews three weeks earlier.

In Pisa (Italy), Catholic philanthropist Giuseppe Pardo Roques, 4 non-Jews and 7 Jews he had sheltered are murdered by the Nazis.

1 August-4 October 1944: The Polish underground and 1,000 Jews revolt against the Germans in Warsaw.

As to the US and their Allies, they halt about 100 bombers from any type of confrontation for two months; as allegedly towards a type of campaign against Germany.

Not Our Own

Anne Frank was, in many ways, was considered a typical girl who attempted to cling to something resembling a normal life. On this wall in her room, she tacked pictures of movie stars as well as postcards depicting an outside world that she was forbidden to frequent. Anne Frank's diary is probably the most famous diary in history. The adolescent girl kept the diary from 12 June 1942, until 1 August 1944. The diary, published for the first time in 1947, records not only the family's extraordinary experiences during its years of concealment, but also the inner life of a young girl. On 15 July 1944, she wrote: "[I]n spite of everything, I still believe that people are really good at heart."

For those who have been put in situations were they are forbidden by circumstances against their will, such as what happened to Anne or some other young girl, that what one looks too, if it is only sometimes as small view of what they see of the outside world appears to be like and even if they get a taste of that outside world their view is not as cluttered or their perception is vastly different. Some have said, they see in a more pure form that those that have not suffered to be apart of an enclosed world such as that.

A cherished photograph, by chance, a gift from a dear friend or even just the simple act of being able to look out a window is extremely special for those forced to be kept from what some people consider just the normality of life, that those who are subjected to hardships by other’s, are not allowed to touch or even necessarily always see what others may take as just so.

Whether, it was people such as those that were forced into hiding such as Anne for example or those that even today are or were political hostages, they were or are subjected to a world that they would never have wished on there own.

To even the knowledgeable fearful horror, that at times one feels helpless as 'the cold metal of a gun presses into the forehead which reaches past the flesh and is felt into the bone;' to further understand, that anytime those who forced one to live in this type of world, would murder not just them but a loved one at any given time.

As to one may ask of how I know this world, I have been forced to live in it because of the US; for over 52 years.

2 August 1944: Gypsies are murdered at Auschwitz.

2 August-30 August 1944: At least 60,000 Jews are deported from Lodz (Poland) Ghetto to Auschwitz.

4 August 1944: Jews are executed by death train from Warsaw to Dachau (Germany) concentration camp. By 9 August 1944, the death train which was in route on it arrival on this day, 2,000 of 3,600 on board has died.

12 December 1942 - "I saw two Jews through the curtains yesterday, it was a horrible feeling, just as if I had betrayed them and was now watching their misery." - From Anne Frank's Diary

In Amsterdam, acting on a tip from a neighborhood informer, an SS sergeant-an Austrian named Karl Silberbauer-and five member of the Dutch Security Police invade the secret-annex hiding place of teenage diarist Anne Frank and her family at 263 Prinsengracht. All are arrested.

5 August 1944: Polish forces liberate their country’s Gesiowka Camp and free 324 Jewish men and 24 Jewish women.

6 August 1944: As the Soviet Army advances westward, the SS begins to drive eastern Poland’s concentration camp inmates to the Stutthof (Germany) concentration camp.

6-8 August 1944: 48 Jews held at the Kaiserwald camp near Riga (Latvia) are loaded onto boats for a two-day journey along the Baltic coast to Stutthof (Germany).

US soldiers marching down Champs Elysees after what has been called, Liberation of Paris.

15-25 August 1944: The Liberation of Paris (also known as Battle for Paris) allegedly takes place as the US as their allies enter the city; which creates a general uprising. During this time German occupying forces surrender (see 25 August 1944). As a large number partisans are battling to liberate Lyons.

16 August 1944: A deportation train carrying Jews from the Italian-held islands of Rhodes and Kos arrives at Auschwitz.

17 August 1944: The last deportation train from Drancy (France), leaves for Buchenwald bearing 51 Jews.

Photographing what happened in the death camps was forbidden and an extremely dangerous undertaking. But members of the Resistance considered it a top priority to record what happened, so that no one could doubt accounts of what the Nazis had done to Europe's Jews. This photograph of a group of women being driven to the gas chambers of an Auschwitz crematorium was taken by a member of the Resistance. All of these women died shortly after the photo was taken.

20 August 1944: The US Army Air Forces bombs Auschwitz III (I.G. Farben chemical plant), 3 miles from Auschwitz I (main camp) and 5 miles from Birkenau, the Auschwitz death camp. 127 bombers by 100 fighters (who face only 19 German planes) drop mote than 1,300 500-pound bombs. Only one bomb is shot down.

On 20 August, Elie Wiesel witnessed the American bombardment of the I.G. Farben chemical plant near Monowitz-Buna, the part of the Auschwitz complex to which he and his father, Shlomo, had been sent to do slave labor. Accompanied by Mustang fighters, 127 American bombers dropped 1336 500-pound bombs on the factory. Less than five miles away, the killing center at Auschwitz-Birkenau was untouched. Postwar analysis of aerial photographs from a 13 September raid on I.G. Farben indicates that 65 cars stood on the Birkenau railroad track while a line of people--perhaps 1500 of them--appeared to be moving toward gas chambers.-Quote.

22 August 1944: The Gestapo undertakes a terror campaign, known as Operation Thunderstorm, against Anti-Nazi functionaries. 5,000 people are arrested.

23 August 1944: Another US bombing raid (allegedly, on oil refineries), passes within 40 miles of Auschwitz.

24 August 1944: 3,000 slave laborers are killed at Mielec (Poland).

A Jewish survivor in liberated Lvov (Ukraine), notes in her diary that only three percent of the regions Jews remain alive.

Despondent officers of the Wehrmacht sit in the hallway of the Hotel Majestic, their former headquarters, in Paris. The German commander of Paris, General Dietrich von Choltitz, ignored Hitler's order to destroy the city, reasoning that to do so would be valueless as well as destructive. After some fighting, his army surrendered to the first French forces to enter Paris, the Second Armored Division commanded by General Jacques Leclerc, on 25 August 1944. Four years of German rule in France ended with the Wehrmacht outmaneuvered, outgunned, and in full retreat.

25 August 1944: Adolf Eichmann and his staff leave Hungary, effectively ending the Nazi deportation of Hungarian Jews.

28 August 1944: The slave-labor camps at Narva, Reval and Klooga on the Estonian coast are evacuated south by sea to the camp at Strutthof (Germany), as Soviet troops approach from the east.

Among the things that made Auschwitz the most horrific of the camps was the infamous selection process that took place upon the prisoners' arrival. This photograph shows an SS man deciding who will die immediately in the gas chambers and who will work himself or herself to death as a slave of the "master race." Children and pregnant women, who represented the future of the Jewish "race," were universally selected for the gas chambers.

29 August 1944: More than 800 Jews earmarked for forced labor are transported from Auschwitz to Sachsenhausen (Germany), labor camp for assignment to nearby factories. Elsewhere in Germany, about 72 ill or pregnant Jews are taken from labor camp near Leipzig and transported to gas chambers at Auschwitz.

The Polish Revolt

In August 1944, the by-mow largely non-Jewish Polish underground revolted against German troops in the city of Warsaw.

Some early triumphs, such as the captured German soldiers (top photo) were psychologically important and the Poles were further buoyed by the nearness of Soviet troops.

But instead his forces into Warsaw as soon as possible, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered his troops to wait outside the city, until allegedly the Germans had crushed the uprising.

However, in September Stalin did allow US and some of the US allied planes to use Soviet airfields to drop badly needed food and material to the beleaguered Poles. Much that was air-dropped went straight into German hands and Stalin suspended any further US and their Allies from further use of Soviet airfields after only a week.

Other US and their allied flights originating from Foggia (Italy), ironically flew within sight of Jews and other interned at Auschwitz.

By October (2nd and 3rd photo) the Warsaw revolt had been put down.

September 1944: 5,000 women and 500 men are evacuated from Auschwitz north to Stutthof (Germany).

3,000 interned women are evacuated from Auschwitz northwest to Neuengamme (Germany).

Following another US bomber hits factories at Auschwitz, the SS gives wounded inmates excellent medical attention as well as flowers and chocolate-a propaganda ploy for the benefit of the German media. Once recovered, the inmates are exterminated.

The Gestapo and SS men in Przemysl (Poland), execute 8 members of a non-Jewish Polish family and a little Jewish girl after discovering the group playing together in a courtyard.

2 September 1944: Approximately 2,000 Jews deported from Plaszow (Poland), are gassed to death at Auschwitz.

3 September 1944: Brussels (Belgium) is liberated by US Allied troops.

A senior Italian police officer named Giovanni Palatucci, arrested in the German-held Yugoslavian city of Fume for aiding Jews, is sent to Dachau concentration camp, where he dies.

3-5 September 1944: Anne Frank is among 1,019 Jews deported on the last transport from Westerbork (Holland) camp to Auschwitz, which was a three-day journey. Anne, her family and the others that were in hiding with her were not just considered another group of transported Jews, but also criminals to the Germans for failure to be transported earlier due to them going into hiding.

4 September 1944: At Lugos (Hungary), hundreds of Jews are massacred by Hungarian Fascists.

The US Allies capture the Belgian port of Antwerp.

5 September 1944: False rumors of imminent liberation of Holland cause Dutch Nazis to flee. The day became known as Dolle Dinsdag (Mad Tuesday).

The SS close the concentration camp at s’ Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands.

6 September 1944: Zalman Gradowski, a sonderkommando("special squad') laborer at Auschwitz, buries a diary of camp life he has kept since arriving at the camp February 1943.

Hell on Earth

A Gideon Greif, asked his eight former Sonderkommando interviewees how, As human beings, they could witness what they witnessed, their response was immediate and almost identical: “We were not humans,” one said. The words they used were “automatons,” “robots,” “machines.”

“Did you cry,” Joseph Sachar, a Greek Jew who arrived in Auschwitz in 1944, was asked. His answer was poetic “Yes, but without tears.”

Yaacov Silberberg answered: “
Were we normal? A man who can’t cry is not a Man.” Silberberg then added, regarding the person who emerged from Auschwitz: “Much is missing. It is not me.”

An Einsatzkommando unit commanded by SS Captain Hauser enters Topolcany (Slovakia), to quell a Jewish uprising. Many leaders of the local Jewish community are arrested and killed, including former deputy Mayor Karl Pollak, his wife and Moritz Hochberger, who was set upon by SS troopers.

Of the people with Anne Frank on the transport to Auschwitz, 549 Dutch Jews are gassed. Anne is saved for the time being because she is 15-years-old. If she were 14, she would be immediately killed. Like all prisoners, she is tattooed and her head is shaved.

7 September 1944: Hungarian authorities permit Otto Komoly, a Jew, to rent buildings in Budapest to be used for the protection of Jewish children. Komoly will ultimately protect 5,000 children in 35 buildings.

By early 1945, Komoly will be murdered by the Hungarian Fascist Arrow Cross (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement"). (see 15 October 1944)

9 September 1944: SS men guarding quarry workers at the Mauthausen (Austria) camp torture and murder 39 Dutch, 7 Britons and 1 American secret agent.

Since the beginning of deportations from the Jewish ghetto at Lodz (Poland), to the Chelmno death camp on 23 June 1944, 775 wristwatches and 550 pocket watches have been stolen from Jews before their deaths.

10 September 1944: 52 Jews are captured in Topolcany (Slovakia) and ordered by Einsatzkommando (Operational Command: mobile killing squads, this unit still exists in Germany, known for one as SEK) and Slovak auxiliary units to dig their own burial pits before being executed. Six children are among the victims, including a 3-month-old baby.

12 September 1944: Jewish slave laborers work near Lieberose (Germany), to build a vacation complex for German officers.

By December 1944, after three months of working on the vacation complex, the Nazis suspend the slave labor. They instead evacuate the Jewish workers 100 miles on foot northwest to the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen (Germany).

Of 3,500 who begin the march, only 900 arrive at the destination. Several hundred sick inmates who are unable to begin the march were shot in their beds.

13 September 1944: The Germans begin evacuation of the forced-labor copper-mine camp at Bor (Hungary). Sixty of these laborers are shot to death during the march and 600 are shot after arriving at their destination, the kiln of brickworks at Cservenka (Hungary)

18 September 1944: 1,400 Jewish boys at Auschwitz are taken from their barracks to the children’s block and later gassed.

The concentration camp at Klooga, Estonia, located in the northern part of the country, was established in 1943. On 19 September 1944, as Soviet forces approached the camp, the Nazis fell back on what was becoming a standard response to imminent liberation: hurried, calculated murder. Inmates were taken in groups into nearby woods and executed. About 2,400 of the camp's Jewish inmates and approximately 100 Soviet POW's were killed this way. Among the victims were this pregnant woman and her unborn child.

19-23 September 1944: The SS murders 2,400 Jews and 100 Soviet POW’s at the Klooga (Estonia) labor camp as Soviet forces draw closer. Only 85 inmates survive.

22 September 1944: Arad (Romania), is liberated by Soviet troops.

24 September 1944: As deportations to Auschwitz slow, Nazis gas 200 inmate Sonderkommandos. The bodies are cremated later in the day. Total number of Sonderkommandos now remaining at the camp 661.

US soldiers enjoy a song as they ride the merry-go-round in Verviers, Belgium.

For Belgian Jews, life was not so joyful, and liberation from the Nazis was only the first step in a long reconstruction of their lives. Survivors struggled to locate family members, secure the basics of life and try to regain confiscated property.

26 September 1944: On Yom Kippur, 1,000 young boys are assembled at Auschwitz in the presence of Dr. Josef Mengele. Any boy whose head does not reach a board Mengele has nailed to a post is set aside for gassing; which occurs two day’s later on 28 September 1944.

28 September 1944: Josef Burckel commissar of Austria and his wife commit suicide.

The Nazis resume deportations from the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia ) Camp/ghetto to Auschwitz after a four-month hiatus. Among the prisoners deported this day was 16-year-old Petr Ginz (pictured), a Czech of Jewish background who was considered the guiding light behind Vedem (In the Lead), a secret “Magazine” created and distributed throughout Theresienstadt. Of the 2,499 prisoners, who were deported from Theresienstadt, on this particular day 1,000 of the 2,499 are gassed immediately.

The camp at Klooga (Estonia) is liberated by the Soviets.

29 September 1944: 1,500 prisoners are deported from Thereseinstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto to Auschwitz. 750 are gassed upon arrival.

German trade unionist Wilhelm Lauschner is hanged by the Nazis.

Jews gather in liberate Kiev (Ukraine) to commemorate the third anniversary of the Nazi massacre of the Jews at Babi Yar (Ukraine).

October 1944: About 15,000 Jews are deported from the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto to Auschwitz.

The Germans initiate death marches of prisoners from Auschwitz to camps in Germany, including Dachau, Bergen-Belsen and Sachsenhausen.

At the Stutthof (Germany) concentration camp, executions of Jewish prisoners begin. Initial killings are carried out by assembling inmates with their backs to an infirmary wall with the stated purpose of medical examinations. Slits in the wall behind the heads of each inmate allow a pistol shot to be fired into their brains from the adjoining room.

Some 150 twins, most of them children, remain in Dr. Mengele’s medical block at Auschwitz-Berkenau.

4 October 1944: All women and children on a train traveling from Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia), to Auschwitz are gassed upon arrival.

6 October 1944: The Soviet Army enters Hungary.

6-10 October 1944: Sonderkommando Jews from Poland, Hungary and Greece, who are forced to transport gassed corpses to crematoria at Auschwitz, attack SS guards with hammers, stones, picks, crowbars and axes. They also blow up on of the four crematoria with explosives smuggled into the camp from a nearby munitions factory.

Russian POW’s throw and SS man alive into a crematoria furnace.

The SS fights back with machine guns, hand grenades and dogs.

250 Jews are shot outside the camp wire. And additional 12 who escape will later be found and executed.

The next day, SS arrests three women at the Auschwitz munitions factory for complicity in the smuggling of explosives used in the previous two-day uprising.

By October 10, four additional women involved in smuggling explosives used in the 2-day uprising at Auschwitz are arrested, including an inmate named Roza Tobota. Fourteen men from the Sonderkommando unit also are arrested.

The sole surviving conspirator, a Greek Jew named Isaac Venezia, will later die of starvation after Auschwitz inmates are evacuated by their captors to Ebensee (Austria).

On 6 January 1945, Roza Tobota and three other Jewish women implicated in the smuggling of explosives us in the uprising that occurred 6-7 October 1944, are hanged at Auschwitz.

13 October 1944: Soviet troops liberate Riga (Latvia).

Admiral Miklós Horthy during a visit with Adolf Hitler.

15 October 1944: The Hungarian Fascist group Arrow Cross (they were known as a “viciously Anti-Semitic dictatorship”) is installed in power by the Nazis following an US and allied request by Hungarian leader Admiral Miklos Horthy for armistice terms. A Hungarian Nazi Ferenc Szalasi is installed as regent. (see 7 September 1944)

16-26 October 1944: Germans and members of the Fascist Nyilas group prohibit Jews in Budapest (Hungary) from leaving their homes. Many Jewish slave laborers are killed by Nyilas members on a bridge linking Buda with pest.

17 October 1944: SS functionary Adolf Eichmann returns to Budapest (Hungary), to secure 50,000 healthy Jews, who will be marched to Germany for forced labor.

Dr. Josef Mengele, supervises further gas-chamber selections of inmates at Auschwitz.

This factory at 4 Lipowa Street in Kraków, Poland, provided a refuge for those Jews fortunate enough to work for Oskar Schindler, a Sudeten German and Nazi Party member. Using Jewish labor, Schindler succeeded in making a fortune, but later expended his enormous wealth to protect his laborers from deportation and death. In October 1944, as the Nazis accelerated their destruction of Kraków's Jews, Schindler bribed Nazi authorities to allow him to move his factory and some 1,100 workers to safety in Brünnlitz in the Sudetenland.

18 October 1944: 700 Plaszow (Poland) camp deportees are sent from the Gross-Rosen (Germany) camp to Brunnlitz in the Sudetenland. Oskar Schindler, owner of a newly opened munitions factory in Brunnlitz, persuades the SS to give him 700 Jews for use as workers. Schindler also makes arrangements to have 300 Jewish women transferred from Auschwitz to his factory.

The secretarial staff of Oskar Schindler's enamelware factory in Kraków assembles for a group photograph. Intensely loyal to the people who worked for him, Schindler risked his own life to rescue his 300 female workers when they were mistakenly sent on a train to Auschwitz, instead of to safety in Brünnlitz in the Sudetenland, where Schindler had opened his new factory.

20 October 1944: Nazi administration at Auschwitz burn documents related to prisoners and their fates.

Nazis initiate death-march deportations of Jews from Budapest (Hungary) to Germany.

22,000 Budapest Jews are entrained for deportation to Auschwitz.

600 Jewish boys from a group of 650 locked in a barracks at Auschwitz-Birkenau are to be gassed. Many race about the camp, naked and panicked, before being clubbed by the SS guards who pursue them. The50 survivors are put to work unloading potatoes from railcars.

Men of the Polish Home Army attack Jewish homes in the freshly liberated village of Ejszyszki. The villages’ Jews subsequently retaliate against the Poles.

Nazis put 25,000 Hungarian Jewish men and 10,000 Jewish women to work digging anti-tank trenches in the path of the advancing Soviet Army.

21 October 1944: Aachen (Germany) is the first city to come into US troop’s hands.

26 October 1944: Munkacs (Hungary) is liberated by Soviet troops.

27 October 1944: Nazis tramping through the Warsaw Ghetto discover a hidden bunker. They kill the 7 Jews inside after the Jews open fire.

28 October 1944: A train from Bolzano (Italy) reaches Auschwitz with 301 prisoners. Of these, 137 are immediately gassed.

30 October 1944: The final deportation train from Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia), to Auschwitz arrives at the camp. Of the 2,038 prisoners on board, 1689 are immediately gassed.

The Germans transfer Anne Frank to Bergen-Belsen.

View Inside: Bergen-Belsen

A view of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp [(Germany), date uncertain].

Dr. Fritz Klein, a former camp doctor who conducted medical experiments on prisoners, stands among corpses in a mass grave. Bergen-Belsen (Germany), after 15 April 1945.

Late October 1944: 18-year-old Jehovah Witness Jonathan Stark is hanged by the Nazis at Sachsenhausen (Germany), where he had been interned because of his refusal to swear and oath of loyalty to Hitler.

November 1944: 12,000 Jews from Stutthof (Germany), including 4,000 women, undertake a forced death march southwest into Germany. Hundreds are killed or die of exhaustion along the 500-plus-mile route.

The final 400 slave laborers in Paotow (Poland) are forced-marched to Bergen-Belsen (Germany), Buchenwald (Germany), Mauthausen (Austria) and other concentration camps.

Among the primary goals of Hungary's new Arrow Cross government was to cooperate with the Germans in their efforts to exterminate Hungary's Jews.

The Hungarian government agrees to establish an international Jewish ghetto, where 72 buildings will be protected under Swiss Authority. By 31 December 1944, Hungarian Arrow Cross members storm the Swiss-sponsored “safe house” in Budapest and attack residents with machine guns and hand grenades. Three Jews are killed but the rest are saved by a Hungarian military unit.

3 November 1944: A trainload of Jews from the labor camp at Sered (Slovakia) arrives at Auschwitz. Because the camp’s gas chambers are being dismantled, the 990 Jews on board are sent to work or to barracks rather than to their deaths.

4 November 1944: Szolnok (Hungary) is liberated by Soviet troops.

After being forced to dig their own graves, hundreds of Jews from the copper-mine labor camp at Bor (Hungary), are shot or beaten to death at Gyor (Hungary). Among the victims is a noted poet named Miklos Radnoti (pictured), age 35.

Forced March

He's foolish who, once down, resumes his weary beat,
A moving mass of cramps on restless human feet,
Who rises from the ground as if on borrowed wings,
On tempted by the mire to which he dare not cling,
Who, when you ask him why, flings back at you a word
Of how the thought of love makes dying less absurd.
Poor deluded fool, the man's a simpleton,
About his home by now only the scorched winds run,
His broken walls lie flat, his orchard yields no fruit,
His familiar nights go clad in terror's rumpled suit.
Oh could I but believe that such dreams had a base
Other than in my heart, some native resting place;
If only once again I heard the quiet hum
Of bees on the verandah, the jar of orchard plums
Cooling with late summer, the gardens half asleep,
Voluptuous fruit lolling on branches dipping deep,
And she before the hedgerow stood with sun bleached hair,
The lazy morning scrawling vague shadows on the air ...
Why not? The moon is full, her circle is complete.
Don't leave me, friend, shout out, and see! I'm on my feet!

-Miklos Radnoti

6 November 1944: Hungary’s Arrow Cross murders 19 Jews in Budapest and drives close to 30,000 towards the old Austrian border.

8 November 1944: Germans initiate a death march of Jews from Budapest to the Austrian border.

John W. Pehle, head of the War Refugee board who has delayed for months a request that Auschwitz be bombed, changes his mind. He argues that bombing would destroy the gas chambers as well as German factories and soldiers in the area, encourages resistance and free prisoners. Assistant secretary of War John J. McCloy rejects Pehle’s reasoning, arguing that bombing Auschwitz will hinder the war effort. (See 3 November 1944)

The “extremely controversial“ Warren Commission (The President's Commission on the Assassination of US President John F. Kennedy, was established on 29 November 1963): From left, Rep. Gerald R. Ford, R-Grand Rapids; Rep. Hale Boggs, D-La.; Sen. Richard B. Russell, D-Ga.; Chief Justice Earl Warren; Sen. John Sherman Cooper, R-Ky.; former World Bank President John J. McCloy; former CIA Director Allen W. Dulles; and counsel J. Lee Rankin

14 November 1944: Catholic labor leader and resistance member Bernhard Letterhaus is hanged by the Germans.

21 November 1944: Saarburg (Germany), is taken by US Allied troops.

22 November 1944: Mulhouse (France) is liberated by US Allied troops.

25 November 1944: A prisoner demolition of Auschwitz’s crematorium II begins. Pipes and ventilation motors are separated and sent to camps at Mauthausen (Austria) and Gross-Rosen (Germany).

27 November 1944: “The Trial and Punishment of European War Criminals” a report by US secretary of War Henry Stimson and Secretary of State Cordell Hull, is submitted to US President Franklin Roosevelt.

Henry Stimson, 'Ten days before the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Stimson entered in his diary the following statement: "how we should maneuver them [the Japanese] into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves."'

Cordell Hull, received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in reestablishing the United Nations (24 October 1945, now in New York City), and was referred to by US President Franklin Roosevelt as the Father of the United Nations.

December 1944: France has a “Week of the Absent” to commemorate innocents still in Nazi hands.

American pollster Elmo Roper (pictured) warns that Anti-Semitism has infected the US, most strongly in and around cities.

11 December 1944: Jewish slave laborers at Auschwitz III (Monowitz-Buna) quietly celebrates Hanukkah.

16 December 1944: Along a 40-mile front in Luxembourg’s Ardennes Forest, 300,000 German troops comprising the Fifth and Sixth Panzer armies launch a surprise offensive against the US First and Ninth armies. Inexperienced, front-line US troops are overwhelmed as the Germans gamble everything in a bid to seize the strategic port of Antwerp (Belgium). Because of early German gains that create a bulging salient to the US lines, the action comes to be known as the “Battle of the Bulge.”

By 26 December 1944, The German’s last-ditch offensive of the war, instigated against US troops at Luxembourg’s Ardennes Forest that began 16 December 1944, stalls following ten days of impressive gains. The offensive’s ultimate goal, the seizure of Antwerp (Belgium) is not achieved.

Bodies of German soldiers lie strewn over the battlefield of Bastogne, Belgium, from the "Battle of the Bulge."

Nearly a quarter of a million German troops have been killed, wounded or captured and more than 1,400 German tanks and heavy assault guns have been lost.

From this point, Germany’s war will be strictly offensive.

17 December 1944: 86 US prisoners of war are murdered by SS troops at Malmedy (Belgium).

Winter 1944: Hundred’s of ill and starving Jewish women die slowly in segregated tents at the Stutthof (Germany) concentration camp.

28 December 1944: Members of Hungary’s Arrow Cross abduct 28 Jew’s in a Budapest Hospital. They will murder them two days later.

1944-1947: A civil war in Poland kills thousands of Jews.


Three Ebensee (Austria), survivors suck on sugar cubes, hoping to gain enough organic strength to eat solid food. For any person that has starved for an extended period of time it is extremely difficult, to next to impossible to eat solid food. If one try’s to force feed a person in this condition, vomiting to death can occur, there is many cases of severe diarrhea that can led to further dehydration and also death.

For those fortunate enough to survive until liberation their hardships were not necessarily over, due to the extended period of such maltreatment, disease, substandard conditions not just including starvation but what is necessary just for one to simply live and the extremeness for many of heavy work.

As a case occurring at Buchenwald which food rations were never sufficient for the heavy work required for the slave laborer and over the period of the camps existence continued to shrink. In March 1945, for example, inmates received 250 grams (a little over half a pound) of horse meat per week. Prisoners sometimes stole food from the well-fed dogs that were used to guard the camp.

At the time Buchenwald was considered liberated, some surviving prisoners raided a supply of dog biscuits kept at the camp’s kennel. The reason being these prisoners were so malnourished that one Hungarian Jew for instance was so thin that is flesh was virtually transparent due to his thinness, which one could further see his spine through the front of him, for he was a mere skeleton. Victims of such sever cases of starvation and malnutrition had very little chance of survival.

As to any of the camps being liberated, while many survived, there were also many that died because the conditions they had suffered were far too great to overcome for their survival.

For those that believe surviving such as this was a small task, think again, because for those who did survive such extreme odd’s against them was accountable as a miracle within itself.

As to the aguish of the mental wounds of such an ordeal, of not just their physical conditions; but in numerous cases the lost of love ones the wounds run very deep. While some may heal and one may continue in life, there is also cases were depression would set in now and again, where for some has led to suicide; for the anguish and horror of their ordeal was far too great for them. But yet, there is those few, while they carry the heartache of their ordeal, continue to live normal healthy lives and have made astounding contributions not just to society, but the world.

As to seeing a survivor one may not always know them by sight, for they could be anyone that is seen on any given day. For not necessarily the camp tattoo shows or all the torture scars; for they may look like me or you. As some may also think, a survivor walks around with a glum face; but this is not so either, for many also have a radiant smile and a determination that “it will never happen again!”

1945: Richard Glucks, inspector of concentration camps, dies, probably by his own hands.

Early 1945: Otto Komoly, a Hungarian Jew who has protected about 5,000 Jewish children in rented buildings Since September 1944, is murdered by the Hungary’s Arrow Cross.

German Jewish poetess Hilde Monte is shot and killed by SS border guards while attempting to enter Germany from Switzerland.

January 1945: The overcrowding of slave-labor camps evacuees inside Germany become critical. Five thousand Jews from Skarzysko Kamienna slave-labor camp are evacuated westward. Camps near Danzig and Konigsberg are evacuated.

The Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects (CROWCASS), an US inter-Allied investigative group, is created by the "Supreme Headquarters", Allied Expeditionary Force [under US General Dwight David Eisenhower (SHAEF) (Badge Shown at left)]. Its alleged mission was to identify and prosecute war criminals.

January-March 1945: Spanish Republicans, who had fought against the Nazi-backed forces during the Spanish Civil War, are worked to death or murdered outright at stone quarries at Mauthausen (Austria) labor camp.

1-16 January 1945: The so-called, Battle of the Bulge comes to an end. (see 16 December 1944).

In January 1945 the Red Army liberated the deadliest of the Third Reich's death camps, Auschwitz-Birkenau, where an estimated 1.1 million had died, most of them in the camp's gas chambers. These children were among the few who survived imprisonment in Birkenau.

I sit with my dolls by the stove and dream.
I dream that my father came back.
I dream that my father is still alive.
How good it is to have a father.
I do not know where my father is.

These children at Auschwitz, liberated by the Soviet Army on 27 January 1945, show their tattooed arms to the photographer. Everyone imprisoned in Auschwitz had his or her arm tattooed with an identification number. This served two purposes. First, it allowed camp officials to keep track of the thousands of prisoners in the camp. Second, making the inmates into nameless units served to dehumanize them, both crushing the spirit of the prisoners and making it easier for their guards to avoid facing the humanity of their charges.

11-14 January 1945: Hungarian Fascist Nyilas thugs enter “protected” Jewish houses throughout Budapest, murdering dozens of residents. The bodies are hurled into the Danube River. Elsewhere in Budapest, Nyilas members surround a Jewish hospital; they torture 92 patients, doctors and nurses, killing everyone except a single nurse.

12 January 1945: Gertrud Seele (Pictured), nurse and social worker she was born in Berlin and served for a time in the Nazi Labor Corps. Arrested in 1944 for helping Jews to escape Nazi persecution; she was tried before the People's Court in Potsdam and executed in Plötzensee Prison, Berlin.

12-14 January 1945: A Soviet breakthrough is achieved on the Vistula River.

15 January 1945: The concentration camp at Plaszow (Poland) is liberated by the Soviet Army.

152 Jewish women at the Brodnica labor camp near Stutthof (Poland), are murdered by their overseers; a few escape.

16 January 1945: Soviet troops enter Czestochowa (Poland), shortly after the last slave laborers have evacuated.

17 January 1945: The Soviet Army enters Warsaw (Poland), as well as Pest (Hungary).

In Budapest, 119,000 Jews are freed by Soviet troops.

SS guards at the Chelmno (Poland) death camp play “William Tell” by shooting at bottles placed on the heads of Jewish inmates who have been engaged in demolishing the camp’s crematoria.

In the evening, the remaining Jews are led from their barracks and shot. One of the prisoners, Mordechai Zurawski, stabs an SS guard and escapes despite suffering a gunshot wound to the foot. A second inmate, Shimon Srebnik also survives after being shot through the neck and mouth and left for dead.

Forty-seven other Jewish prisoners at Chelmno, aware that the SS will shoot them before fleeing west ahead of the Soviets, take refuge in a building that is set afire by the SS. Jews who run from the blaze are machine-gunned; only one of the original 47 survives.

The SS abandons the Chelmno camp later in the day.

Final roll call is taken at Auschwitz: 11,102 Jews remain at Birkenau; 10,381 women in the Birkenau women’s camp; 10,030 at the Auschwitz main camp; 10,233 at the Monowitz satellite camp and about 22,800 in the remaining factories in the surrounding region.

As of 18 January 1945, into March 1945, acting on orders from Berlin, the SS begins a massive, on-foot evacuation of all prisoners and slave laborers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Monowitz camps and from the Auschwitz region (Upper Silesia, Poland). Of the thousands of marchers, most die from exposure, exhaustion and abuse on their way to their destinations.

Boys evacuated from Birkenau march towards Mauthausen (Austria). Many of the boys are on “cart commando” duty, which is being harnessed to enormous carts in groups of 20.

20 January 1945: The Soviet Army moves into Prussia.

4,200 Jews are shot at Auschwitz.

21-29 January 1945: 96 Hungarian Jews interned at Auschwitz and working at a quarry at Golleschau (Germany), are sealed inside a pair of cattle cars labeled “Property of the SS.” Half the prisoners freeze to death as the train travels aimlessly for days.

At Zwittau (Germany), the cattle cars are detached from the train and left at the station.

Manufacturer Oskar Schindler alters the bill of lading to read “ Final Destination-Schindler Factory, Brunnlitz.” After unsealing the cars at his factory, Schindler frees the Jews.

23 January 1945: Soviet forces close in on Auschwitz.

25 January 1945: The SS evacuates Stutthof (Poland) concentration camp.

26 January 1945: 1,000 women interned at Neusalz (Poland), slave-labor camp are set on a month-and-a-half-long forced march to the concentration camp at Flossenburg (German), about 200 miles to the southwest. Along the way, 800 are beaten and shot.

On 15 February 1945, the Soviet Army liberates the slave-labor camp at Neusalz (Poland).

As to the women that began the force march on 26 January, they are evacuated by train to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (Germany) on 19 March; where they arrive on 24 March 1945 at Bergen-Belsen.

Liberated prisoners in Auschwitz with Russian soldiers (February 1945).

27 January 1945: Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz and find 7,000 living inmates, including Anne Frank’s father, Otto. They also discovered more than 830,000 women’s coats and dresses, nearly 348,000 men’s suits and seven tons of human hair.

Memel (Lithuania) is also liberated by the Soviet’s on this day.

When Otto Frank is liberated, he weighs less than 115 pounds, while he weighed over 150 pounds in the Secret Annex.

After the war in a German radio interview (1979), Otto Frank spoke of how he had survived Auschwitz:

"One day in Auschwitz I became so dispirited that I couldn't carry on. They had given me a beating, which wasn't exactly a pleasant experience. It was on a Sunday, and I said: 'I can't get up'. Then my comrades said: 'That's impossible, you have to get up, otherwise you're lost'. They went to a Dutch doctor, who worked with the German doctor. He came to me in the barracks and said: 'Get up and come to the hospital barracks early tomorrow morning. I'll talk to the German doctor and make sure you are admitted'. Because of that I survived."

A page from the Hadamar Institute's death register. The institute was one of the six major facilities in the German "euthanasia" program. The document indicates each victim's date of arrival, family and given names, date of birth, date of death, cause of death, and age at death.

Late January 1945: A forced march of several thousand Jews is undertaken from the Danzig/Konigsberg region of Germany to the coastal city of Palmnicken. At least 700 marchers are shot along the way and with the exception of a few who escape, the remainder are machine-gunned by the SS at the edge of the Baltic Sea.

29,000 Jews, mostly women, are evacuated on forced marches from Danzig (Poland) and Stutthof (Poland). Only 3,000 survive.

Thousands of Jews are sent on a death march from the Lamsdorf camp near Breslau (Germany), westward toward Thuringia (Germany). Hundreds die or are killed along the way.

February 1945: Ukrainian nationalist hunt down and murder Jews throughout the Ukraine.

US troops close in on Cologne (Germany).

3 February 1945: 3,500 prisoners from Gross-Rosen (Germany) are marched southwest to the concentration camp at Flossenburg (Germany), nearly 200 miles away. 500 will die on the way. 2,000 more are evacuated by train to the labor camp at Ebensee (Austria), near Mauthausen; 49 will die on the journey and another 182 will perish at the camp.

A US bomber crash onto the Volksgerichtshof (People’s Court) building in Berlin, killing fanatic Nazi judge Roland Freisler and interrupting the sentencing of anti-Nazi German Resistance members Frau Solf and her daughter, Grafin Ballestrem. By 25 April 1945, Solf and her daughter are released from Moabit Prison due to bureaucratic oversight.

4 February 1945: A US allied conference at Yalta (Ukraine), establishes respective spheres of influence that will take effect at war’s end; the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization.

8 February 1945: Soviet troops are 30 miles east of Dresden (Germany).

13 February 1945: German troops surrender Budapest (Hungary).

The SS evacuates the Gross-Rosen (Germany) concentration camp.

17 February 1945: 7 Jews, including an orphan girl, are murdered by a Pole in Sokoly (Poland).

18 February 1945: 500 Jews married to Christians are seized throughout Germany and deported to Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto.

23 February 1945: Nazis evacuate the Jews from the concentration camp at Schwarzheide (Germany). The 300 weakest prisoners are sent in open wagons to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (Germany).

Early March 1945: 15-year-old Anne Frank dies at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (Germany).

Arthur Nebe, Einsatzgruppe B commander in Belorussia, is executed because of his involvement in a plot against Hitler.

March-April 1945: 2,000 inmates from Koszeg (Hungary) slave-labor camp are marched for weeks through rugged Hungarian and Austrian countryside’s.

3 March 1945: An evacuation train from Gross-Rosen (Germany), arrives at the Ebensee (Austria) camp, with more than 2,000 Jews. More than 180 are killed almost immediately.

5 March 1945: US Ninth Army reaches the Rhine River south of Dusseldorf (Germany).

7 March 1945: US Ninth Army crosses the Rhine River at Remagen (Germany).

12 March 1945: Ss chief Heinrich Himmler and his personal physician, Dr. Felix Kersten, sign the Himmler-Kersten Agreement which provides for the handling of concentration camps allegedly as US allied troops approach. Notably, the document calls for the end of killing Jewish inmates.

19 March 1945: Adolf Hitler issues the Nero-Befehl (Nero Order or Decree); a scorched-earth directive intended to leave only a ruined Germany for advancing troops. By this time, Hilter was suffering from several health issues ( see To Death...Together).

"Adolf Hitler been of the opinion that the German people had forfeited his right to live, because it had lost to the "eastern nation" and therefore must resign now. The wording of the command but no representation is made that the tactic of scorched earth to the destructive aims of the (US) Allies was only prejudge."-Translated quotes from German.

It is a mistake to believe that not only destroyed or paralyzed traffic in the short term news industry and supply facilities for the recovery of lost territories for their own purposes can take back into operation. The enemy will leave us when he retired only a scorched earth, and every consideration to fall on the people. I therefore order: 1 All military transportation, communications, industrial and utility plants and property within the Reich territory, which can make the enemy to continue his fight any available now or in the foreseeable future, are to be destroyed.

Adolf Hitler honors Hitler Youth members, 20 March 1945.

20 March 1945: A US allied air raid kills Jewish women in a camp at Tiefstack (Germany), near Hamburg.

21 March 1945: Soviet Army troops enter the Prussic (Poland) camp near Stutthof. Only 200 women prisoners, out of the original 1,100 remain alive.

Spring 1945: The SS hatches a scheme to poison all inmates of the Dachau (Germany) concentration camp before alleged US allied liberation. The idea is not pursued.

29 March 1945: The Soviet Army takes Danzig.

30 March 1945: Jewish women being led to their deaths at the Ravensbruck (Germany camp, grapple with SS guards. 9 of the women escape but are recaptured and murdered with the rest.

Soviet troops enter Austria.

April 1945: In a transparent attempt to save himself, Heinrich Himmler tells Norbert Masur, a representative of the Geneva-based World Jewish Congress, that Jews and National Socialists should “bury the hatchet.”

By 20 April, Himmler meets with Swedish diplomat Masur to arrange 7,000 women, about half of them Jewish, to be transported from Ravensbruck (Germany) camp to neutral Sweden.

The scheme is Himmler’s transparent bid to improve his position.

Because there is no longer away for Mauthausen (Austria) prisoners to wash, lice infestation there is out of control.

For African-American soldiers, seeing victims of racism-dead, dying or suffering-was a frightening reminder of the potential consequences of prejudice. Which African-American’s have suffered prejudice maltreatment from about 1607 with slavery, until today. Even in 1945, the US military was segregated, between white Americans and African-Americans. African-Americans were also usually frontline troops that received the most casualties or dead; the white US military called them "cannon-fodder," due to racism not just in the US itself, but also in the US miltary.

It was impossible to have a normal childhood in a concentration camp, but parents and other adults often sought to provide some sense of normality for the children imprisoned in the camps. This little girl, photographed in Prague, Czechoslovakia, wears her camp uniform while holding a stuffed animal and a ball, toys she undoubtedly held dear.

'Such treasures as these toys if seen by the Nazis would be taken away, for a normal life was not what the captors wanted for the detainees.

Many times when I was growing up being a US Political Hostage or prisoner, such as a cherished stuffed bear which I had named “Harry” or just about anything; was either forcibly shortly after receiving the gift such as a little old fashion sewing machine my grandmother had gave me originally from home would be pulled from my hands, a little time later forced to relinquish to my captor or would actually be stolen after a time never to be seen again. There was a few times, that an item would be just outright destroyed and such as this did not stop occurring until long after I was grown, for one never really was allowed to own anything.

The only real toy I ever seemed to have gotten to keep and even after many years it disappeared was a little white stuffed dog, named “Snoopy.”

Nevertheless, an understanding about my stuffed bear named “Harry,” who reminded me of a cousin that was close to my age, which we had been childhood friends and they were from the Muslim side of the family. There father was a Sheikh, who only a few years later would be murdered by the US occupation forces in Israel. Many Sheikh's and Rabbi's were murdered by the US occupation forces in the later part of the 1960's; which there was countless tears and wailing that I even remember seeing, by both Jews and Muslims alike. Those I had the opportunity to know from the time I was a little girl, I still miss them and appreciate that they were some of my early teachers. To this day, there is still a heavy heart; for there was no rational reasoning for something such as this.

If by chance if I had a bed, for sometimes there was not one but something placed on the floor, too not one at all or a few bits of furniture it was usually something that had been either cast-off or make-shift, I can still remember one place; I used some pieces of heavy yarn and made a little rug so the floor would not seem so cold.

Mother and
I were forced to move so much when I was younger for our US captor was wanted by Interpol; that by chance if I got to see a certain house with the lights on, I would wonder what it would be like to live in one place, in a nice happy house like that, in a place where one actually belonged and had grown-up in the same place. We moved so much, my mother use to try and make a joke that I was growing-up sleeping in the back seat of the car. This constant moving I was told started about 4 September 1948, with my mother and as for our US captor, it did not stop until there death on 2 October 2009.

The only real stopping in the constant moving was the thirteen years (1982-1995), our US captor held us in a death camp, that we named “Siberia;” which in several comparisons was isolated and my mother would be murdered by him in this awful place For conditions were horrible, we were constantly monitored on everything and what seemed as months on end never saw anyone accept who was in the camp or occasionaly saw through the wire. If one got to leave in a trustee situation, there was time limits, never suppose to actually talk or at times how amazing the outside was changing, such as seeing our first mobile phone. Something that was a thrill for us, was to get to use inside plumbing such as a regular toilet in the early part of staying in the camp, for us to have our own took about five years. I do not know if one can understand, but time during those years did not mean much; for it seemed to run together or just stopped.

Why he was on the run from Interpol, was do to numerous accounts of war crimes from the 1940's; with several later stemming to what he was doing to my mother and I.

But needless to say for me, the US has not yet allowed the excessive torment to cease; I am still a US prisoner and have not so far, been allowed freedom; to live just a normal life.-
HRM Deborah

Early April 1945: The SS evacuates thousands of Jews-mostly on foot-as US allied and Soviet forces press from the east and the west. Evacuees are taken to camps Bergen-Belsen (Germany), Dachau (Germany), Ebensee (Austria), Leitmeritz (Czechoslovakia) and Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia). The operation is rife with daily beatings and murders as well as deaths from starvation and typhus.

1,300 Jews are evacuated on foot from Vienna; only 700 will reach the destination, the Gusen (Austria) camp, alive.

1 April 1945: The SS initiates death marches to evacuate the concentration camps at Dora-Mittelbau and Kochendorf (Germany).

3 April 1945: All 497 members of a slave-labor camp at Bratislava (Slovakia), are shot and killed by their captors.

The Nazis evacuate the concentration/slave-labor camp at Norhausen (Germany).

Liberation of Ohrdruf

Forsaken Humanity: "Behind the Wire" by impressionist painter Gideon

“We had known. The world had vaguely heard. But until now no one of us had looked on this. Even this morning we had not imagined we would look on this. It was as through we had penetrated at last to the center of the black heart, to the very crawling inside of the vicious heart.” -Meyer Levin, on the liberation of Ohrdruf (4 April 1945).

The US 4th armored division (Germans referred to them as "Roosevelt's Butchers") are considered the ones that liberated Ohrdruf (Germany) concentration camp, the site of more than 4,000 deaths during the previous three months. Victims were Jews, Poles and Soviet POW's.

Hundreds were shot just before liberation had been working to build an enormous underground radio and telephone communications center.

Very few inmates remain alive at liberation.

By 12 April, US Generals Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton (who was hated and feared by his own troops ) and Omar Bradley visit Ohrduf.

The SS shot these Polish inmates in a mass execution at Ohrdruf (Germany). As so often happened, the Germans killed their prisoners rather than have them found during liberation. US General Omar Bradley describes the atrocities of the camp: “The smell of death overwhelmed us even before we passed through the stockade. More than 3,200 naked, emaciated bodies had been flung into shallow graves. Others lay in the streets where they had fallen. Lice crawled over the yellowed skin of their sharp, bony frames.”

8 April 1945: Jewish inmates are marched out of Buchenwald (Germany) concentration camp, to a camp at Flossenburg (Germany), 100 miles to the southeast. Non-Jews are left behind to await advancing US troops. A few Jews are able to hide and avoid the march. By 11 April, Buchenwald (Germany) concentration camp is liberated; 21,000 inmates are still alive.

9 April 1945: Dora-Mittelbau (Germany) concentration camp is liberated by US Army, very few inmates remain alive.

Two liberated Dachau prisoners stand over a camp guard named Weiss, who is reduced to helplessness without his weapons of punishment, in 1945. Which something of this nature is not about anger, but the horrifying experience and the sorrow of it all. For something like this is not about materialism, but the loss of family and one's very dignity with complete absence of normality; which sometimes the view of the outside world can be seen beyond the barbwire fence. The only manner for feelings of this type to have a chance to diminish is one's freedom and a chance at a normal life and bury the deepest of the pain.

10 April 1945: SS functionary Adolf Eichmann (sometimes referred to as "the architect of the Holocaust"), visit’s the Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia) camp/ghetto to gloat over the many Jews who have perished there. Eichmann would be hanged a few minutes before midnight on 31 May 1962, at a prison in Ramla, Israel.

11 April 1945: Buchenwald (Germany) concentration camp is liberated by US troops; 21,000 inmates are alive. In the Pathology lab tanned and tattooed skin is discovered, as well as human household furnishings in the camp commanders home, that was commissioned by his wife, from lamp shades, to other furnishings.

The human remains on this table, including two shrunken heads and a lampshade were made from human skin, were taken from a laboratory run by Buchenwald's SS guards. The commandant's wife, Ilse Koch, kept a collection of tattooed human skin and had several human household furnishings. The two heads were those of Polish prisoners who had escaped and were recaptured.

Roosevelt Dies

Residents of Washington, D.C., seek solace from one another on 12 April 1945, as they absorb the news of the death of US President Franklin Roosevelt. His successor, Harry Truman, concerned about Jews liberated from the Nazi camps and now confined to "displaced-persons" camps, Truman pressured their allies to allow more Jews to immigrate to "Palestine." Truman did lobby Congress though, to allow a limited number of "displaced persons" to enter the US; which this situation was still resonated on Jews and Muslims minds well into the 1960‘s. Which many Jews and Muslims in the US thought was appalling, that the Jews were being treated in this manner.

The American opinion, as a blunt analysis of the situation by one of the US’s allies, “The American’s were enthusiastic about opening 'Palestine' to the Jews because they didn’t want to have many of them in New York.”

Bergen-Belsen Liberation

The dirty bandages on the face of this Bergen-Belsen survivor provide evidence of the abuse she received during her imprisonment. Many of the camp's "survivors" continued to die even after the camp's liberation. A soldier remembered that many of the former inmates "collapsed as they walked and fell dead." About 14,000 prisoners died from 15 April to 20 June.

15-17 April 1945: US allied troops reach Bergen-Belsen (Germany) concentration camp and find 60,000 survivors and 27,000 unburied corpses.

Following liberation, starvation and typhus will claim 500 inmates everyday for ten days.

A small contingent of US allied troops are unable to prevent Hungarian SS guards from murdering 72 Jewish and 11 non-Jewish prisoners.

“One woman came up to a soldier who was guarding the milk store and doling the milk out to the children, and begged for milk for her baby. The man took the baby and saw that it had been dead for days, black in the face and shriveled up. The woman went on begging for milk. So he poured some on the dead lips. The mother then started to croon with joy and carried the baby off in triumph. She stumbled and fell dead in a few yards.”- Patrick Gordon, Reporter

When US allied liberated the Bergen-Belsen (Germany), concentration camp on 15 April 1945, they discovered tens of thousands of unburied bodies abandoned by the Germans. The US allies had no choice but to bury the corpses in mass graves. Curtis Mitchell, an American who visited the camp at this time, described the Germans who were forced to load the bodies into trucks in preparation for mass burial as behaving "just as if they were dumping garbage."

To Death ... Together

This March 1945 photograph is one of the last images of the living Adolf Hitler. Still suffering the effects of physical injury from the July 1944 assassination attempt and loaded with recklessly prescribed drugs and advancement of Syphilis [diagnosed by this time to have entered the brain, which warrants insanity (Another who did have complications from Syphilis within the brain was American gangster Alphonse "Al" Capone and caused mental deterioration;
which was a majority factor in his death.)], he greeted members of the Hitler Youth in Berlin as the Soviet Army moved virtually unchecked toward the city. Amidst an atmosphere of suffering, chaos, and anger, the Hitler Youth were among the few Nazi groups to remain wholly loyal to the Führer.

As Soviet troops closed in on Berlin, Eva Braun (she was Hitler's niece) returned to the city to stand at the side of her Führer. On 29 April, in a simple civil ceremony in the bunker, they wed. Joseph Goebbels and Martin Bormann served as witnesses, and the ceremony was followed by a small celebration. The next day the newlyweds committed suicide, Eva by cyanide and Hitler probably by cyanide and gun.

Later, Hitler's subordinates, including his driver, Erich Kempka and the commander of the SS guards, Hans Rattenhuber; follow Hitler’s last orders: they took Hitler’s body and that of Eva Braun to the Chancellery garden. Where the corpses are doused with gasoline and set ablaze.

Hitler’s subordinates, including his driver, Erich Kempka and the commander of the SS guards, Hans Rattenhuber, followed Hitler’s last orders- they took his body and that of Eva Braun to the courtyard about the bunker, doused both bodies with gasoline and ignited the bodies. Later, the Soviets placed the charred corpses into the box seen above. Hitler ordered his and Eva’s bodies burned with the idea- that the Soviets would have no remains to” gloat.”

A trench style mass grave at the Mauthausen concentration camp. Mauthasuen, Austria, 10-15 May 1945. This was just one manner the Nazis used to hide the evidence of Jewish mass extermination.

23 May 1945: Heinrich Himmler, SS chief, attempted to sell Jews to save his life during the final days of the European war. He was considered the most wanted war criminals in Germany. He attempted to avoid arrest by shaving his mustache, donning an eye patch and a Wehrmacht uniform and then traveling under the alias Heinrich Hitzinger, Nonetheless, he was arrested on this date, only to commit suicide almost immediately by biting down on a small glass vial of cyanide he had secreted in his mouth.

December 1948: The United Nations convenes a Genocide Convention, which calls all member states to react with firmness against groups committed to the destruction of people on racial, ethnic, religious or national grounds. 'The US delegation, keenly aware of the forced segregation within the US declines to ratify the convention.'-as quote. (see US Segregation in 1940)

From the time of World War I until today in the US, Jews and Muslims are barred from certain neighborhoods, clubs and other social organizations; due to Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and Religious Persecution.

This also does include the segregated racist practice, that African-American’s are also barred from many of the same type of places; which is contributed from their days in forced slavery.

The Grand Mufti Who Betrayed a Nation

Former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin Al-Hussein (L) with Adolph Hitler in Berlin.

Contrary to some speculation The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin al-Hussein not only betrayed his own country, but his very religion; within the early beginnings of the creation of the Nazi party he was a member and by 1941 did pledge to cooperate with the Nazi party under Adolph Hitler to not just exterminate Jews, but Muslims; to further attempt to enlist the Muslim population to cooperate with Germany, when in actuality he failed.

The majority of Muslims and Jews were completely against al-Hussein, even though he was able to collect some Muslims within Israel, as the Nazi’s did to some Jews in Europe; to betray there own people.

But by 1948, al-Hussein with a few Nazi commanders, the US military and only about 50 Muslims; they set out not just to murder Muslims and Jews; but to destroy Israel itself. The US, has claimed that all “Arabs” with al-Hussein attacked Jews, which is incorrect.

The Jewish forces joined with the Muslims in Israel and the surrounding countries to fight the Nazis, the collaborators and the US military. With the Jewish and Muslims, further opposing the US, the Nazi‘s, allies with a blockade of not allowing Holocaust survivors and other Jews, with some accounts of Muslims aboard ships that were fleeing the Nazi gripping Holocaust in Europe.

When one portion of allied US forces left Israel on 15 May 1948, the US continued there same policy of a prison system, occupation and eventually what became known as the Nakba, which was an attempt to separate Jewish and Muslims forces and not just the people themselves; too further create a concentration/ death camp system within Israel, which during this period innumerable people died and much destruction occurred within the country.

Prior to the Nakba, a concentration/ death camp system was imposed in Israel by the US and their allies, which some have claimed only had Jewish inmates; but there is other accounts that Muslims were also in these camps. These particular camps held many holocaust survivors and anyone that was opposed to the US occupation policies. As to the conditions in these camps, they have been contributed to what was very similar to the camps in Europe. What was a bit ironic about these camps, while they usually had a first name; nevertheless, instead of calling them concentration camps as in Europe, the US called them “Detention Centers.”

Another very famous US camp that was not in Israel itself, but was in Cyprus that housed refugees from Europe who where mainly trying to get to Israel. The conditions also were extremely similar to the horrendous conditions that many had already seen as in such places as Auschwitz; with excessive overcrowding, lack of food and no real health care facilities or medicine. The camp was called “Karaolos.”

A second type of US camps in Israel were for the youth of the country, which was for the indoctrination of children into the US ideology and while they were rather regimented; many of the youth refused this ideology especially those who had came out of Europe, because it was too similar to Nazism.

Also during this period, the US was still kidnapping people from Israel; they were manly Jewish and Muslim, to further become political hostages on US soil which the majority of these people are still prisoners today or have over time been murdered. The conditions for these people, is too often substandard for what is necessary to actually sustain a human life; they are under constant threats of death, torture (which too many have receive injuries that they will suffer the rest of their life), the concentration camps that still are and have been on US soil, also with the ideals of attempting to indoctrinate the children into US society which for some the pressure to do so is extreme do to the harsh or manipulative methods too often used; but also doesn't always succeed do to the internal love for ones country, people and religion with also the endurance of parents, too there enduring faith in Allah (Hashem)
. As to what it feels like for these people, they are strangers in a foreign country. But their is some children, that did forget who they were, where they came from or even what their actual religion is; they are considered "the lost" or in a manner have died, with some even having became US collaborators and what is bizarre, the US murders these people many times as they do everyone else. Nevertheless, some of the latter political hostages with their families on US soil; are also in jails and prisons. For those that are allowed any type of labor, it is usually menial or slave labor and as for getting a further education from what US laws require for children, it is actually not allowed. To many, are put in various forms of isolation, lack any form of proper medical care, have or still suffering from starvation conditions, not actually allowed to speak their own language it is suppose to be English only, many have to practice there own religion in secret due to Anti-Semitism or Islamophobia ( this began even prior to the European Holocaust) and suffer many forms of US censorship. While by chance one may see a political hostage, the US policy or what some political hostages commonly refer to as “the rules” towards them; is vastly different than what is seen in any normal society, with a system that is as complex as what occurred in the European Holocaust.

Furthermore, what many may not know, is even in Israel, the US military was working with the Nazi’s, even before what became known by the opposing forces of Israel at the time as Mandate of Palestine, in this slice of Israeli history.

As a postscript of what eventually happened to al-Hussein, he escaped into exile to Beirut, Lebanon; where he was assassinated in 1974, for crimes against humanity.

1947-1948: The 1948 "Nakba" Pogrom imposed during the US Occupation in Israel caused terror, immense amount of dead and expulsion of 750,000 Muslims and "Sephardic" Jews from there homes, created massive country wide destruction of whole towns and villages. With the further problem of a large international refugee problem and the separation of families that had returned surviving a portion the Holocaust in Europe; for much similar had already been occurring in Israel prior to the European situation with 48 years of US Occupation.

Inmates sit in a cell in a US illegal prison on 4 May 2010. Many have been kidnapped from US occupation force raids on homes and off the street. The inmates are Jewish, Christian, Muslim and foreign nationals; which the US has several such prisons in Israel. The most notorious are in Acre and Hebron, these prisons are labeled as “death houses” do to the many inmates that are murdered in them; which is mostly by hanging, shooting many a day or tortured to death. Also, in the broader scope; the US has had political hostages within there own country as early as the post 1901 Pogrom; with at least two generations born and raised in prison. I am one of those children!

Those people expelled, the US labeled them as "Palestinians;" after a contemptuous term from ancient Rome and the US calling the main divided land area "the West Bank" or "Palestine," with a continued prison, concentration/death camp system, home demolitions, medical experimentation (including black market organ harvesting), slavery (forced labor) and all other methods used previously in Europe under Nazism on both sides of the divide and Gaza; continuing still in 2010.

Unified continuous prayers to Allah (Hashem) began in 1947 among Rabbi’s and Sheikh's that would last for eleven years, for the answer would arrive in 1958.

The US intention is to exterminate those that had been expelled and create a US Militarized Zone for the Middle East, in an attempt to recreate what previously was attempted in Europe towards all Muslims and Jews within the region.

The alleged creation of a Democratic “State of Israel” excessively backed by US President Harry S. Truman and the partition voted lastly by the US to not appear too anxious, to the complete separation of what became known as Palestinians and the European survivors and too would eventually be violently eradicated under US Occupation; along with the global Jewish and Muslim populace-the real US foreign policy for Islam and Judaism, with the US's "two state solution"
for Israel and former US President George W. Bush's "Road Map for Peace" first outlined on 24 June 2002. Bush was also well-known for his many quotations from Adolf Hitler given in speeches towards the American public, during his US presidency. The Bush family, is deeply pro-Nazism as early as about 1923.

"In My house and within My walls I will give them a place of honor and renown, which is better than sons and daughters; eternal renown will I give them, which will never be terminated." -Isaiah 56: 5

1953: Yad Vashem memorial to the Jewish and Muslim victims of the Holocaust is established in Jerusalem. Which this museum commemorates not just the six million Jews killed by the Nazis during the 1930’s and 1940‘s, but all those that have continued to be murdered due to the ongoing Holocaust.

The infamous V-2 terror rocket as early as 1944 was being constructed by Jewish slave labor in such places as Dora-Mittelbau complex which was an underground weapons plant near Nordhausen, Germany; these rockets were mainly used during the London "Blitz"as the rockets rained down on London. The V-2 rocket along with a model called the V-1 was conceived as “Vengeance” weapons. The reasoning for the use of Jewish slave labor was due to so many Nazi’s at the front or had been killed during the Nazi expansion.

1960: Former SS member Wernher Von Baum, a leading German scientist who was instrumental in designing the V-2 terror rocket, is appointed the head of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. He became one of the leading figures in the creation of rocket technology in the US. Von Braun also worked on the US Army intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM) program.

Aftermath of V-2 terrorist bombing at Battersea, London on 27 January 1945 during the “Blitz.” At the end of the Blitz an estimated 16,000 had been killed. An estimated 180,000 were injured.

December 1996: The US posses $68 million in Nazi gold bars-much of it is made from gold stolen from Jews (gold rings, watches and from teeth of murdered Jews) - that have been stored in vaults of the Federal Reserve Bank in New York City. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York took possession of gold plates, buttons, coins and smoke-pipe ornaments that had been stolen from murdered Jews and was also later melted down into gold bars. The US President during this time, was Bill Clinton.

What leaves into the most probable scenario, that a portion of these gold bars were used by former US President George W. Bush to create the “Twin Towers” 11 September 2001 terrorist attack in New York City which left 2,995 people dead and further entrance into the three illegal wars of Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan, which has left a body count by most accounts well into the billions.

With further, the same US foreign policy of mass destruction and death that is being seen in the US Occupation of Israel; which is the further implementation of the Holocaust.

It is a case, of mass genocide funding mass genocide; for global domination ("New World Order"-Aryanism, Fascism, Nazism), greed (with covetness), US resettlement, slavery (force labor) and religious persecution of Judaism and Islam!

Many US fine-arts museums are said to contain art stolen from the European Holocaust, from Nazi Germany and US theft.

Northwestern University Engineering professor Author R. Butz, who calls the Holocaust “the extermination legend,” is at the center of controversy because the university provides him free internet access, by way of the school web server, through which Butz presents his ideas to an enormous audience. A Jewish professor who criticizes the universities position during class time is dismissed. Butz still works for the University.

1 November 1997: A US bank, National City (later Citibank) knowingly accepts about $30 million in looted Nazi gold. National city, working with the approval of the US Treasury Department, accepted the gold after it had been laundered as early as 1951. The gold bars, bearing the Nazi swastika are melted down and issued as US Assay Office bars.

3 December 1998: A 44-nation panel meeting in Washington DC agrees to US drafted principles for the return of fine art looted from Holocaust victims by the Nazis and did not include US theft. But no real progress ever ensued on any portion of the draft or the US part in the thefts.

11 May 2009: Roman Catholic Pope Benedict XVI on a visit to Israel has holocaust survivors put on display at in the Hall of Remembrance at Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem and later firmly forbidden, is all Catholic Pope’s and representation from the Vatican to reenter the country for 2,000 years.

14 July 2010 in Iowa: A billboard ordered and paid for by the North Iowa Tea Party shows US President Barack Obama, Adolf Hitler and Vladimir Lenin in Mason City, Iowa. It was forcibly removed by the White House and replaced with a public service announcement. As to the members of the North Iowa Tea Party, Obama and his personnel is harassing and creating a lot of misery for them; but this form of oppression is not new for Obama. Nevertheless, Obama being compared to Hitler is certainly not new, for it began within his first hundred days as a US President.

"When you compare Obama to Hitler, that to me does a disservice to the Jews who both survived and died in the Holocaust and to the Germans who lived under Nazi regime rule," Shelby Blakely, of the national Tea Party Patriots group, told the Associated Press agency.

It seems Mr. Blakely hasn’t kept up with what Obama has been doing to the Jewish people, Israel or the real historical US focus towards Germany; since even before Obama got his foot stubbed trying to enter through the white house threshold or the fact Obama caused a woman‘s death and the wounding of 5 others in Gaza just today. Oh, but I forgot they where Muslim and that the US tends to also discriminately disregard them; also not taking into account many are also Holocaust survivors and have died in the same manners.

Behind the US Segregated Invisible Fence

Arab Israeli writer Ali al-Kurdi signs a copy of his book 'Qasr Shemaya' (Shemaya's Castle) in Damascus on 28 January 2010. The book narrates the life of Arab Israeli refugees (two years after the US imposed what became known as the "Nakba" ) who were housed in the Jewish quarter of Damascus (Syria) in the 1950’s. Later, was created ‘what some have called the "Refugee Camp System" and in reality was a "Concentration Camp System" with some "Sephardic" Jews being put on the Muslim side of this chasm or anguished "invisible" fence (US fallaciously labeling the area an "occupation zone" or later became known as the "1967 border") that in recent years was torn down where peace and stability has ensued within the country at a rapid pace as well as harmonious beneficial progress for the benefit of everyone in the country.’ In March 2010, US Vice President Joe Biden while on a perilous illegal visit to Israel, maliciously insulted the government of Israel over building of public housing where the invisible fence in part once stood; for the US still insists on the US segregated concentration/death camp, prison system that was implemented prior to 1948.

Just prior to 1948, the US ran a media propaganda campaign especially in the US; that Jews and Muslims where fighting in Israel and about Jewish land theft (Diaspora Jews were welcomed home anytime they wished, being given the upmost hospitality and any needed aide upon arrival; by Arab and "Sephaedic" Jews together. Those returning from the European Holocaust were not just Jewish either, but many also were Muslim; even aboard the boats. For the US, could not distinguish a Muslim from a Jew by appearance.) when such was not occurring, which was bombarded among people so insistently to the point that many thought it had to be true, so fighting in the Middle East began. As to some of the media campaigns by the US even into 2010 attempting to make people believe certain instances in not just Israel, but the whole of the Middle East being true, again it is nothing but discriminatonily falsified innuendo publicized by the US to create not just dissension among people especially Muslims and Jews, but to smoke screen US crimes against humanity.

The US has further created a media window for the public of what they wish people to see, not the reality of day-to day life, for if the actuality appeared; the US occupation of the country would seem as though all the many skeletons hidden in the US’s cupboard had fallen one upon another until they where heaps upon the floor higher then any human eyes could see.

But too many times for the US media to perpetrate there media window is as a slice of distorted glass, Jews and Muslims alike are forced to do things against there will for the US occupation media, from the US instigated protests, to outright forced labor or misguiding the photo's actual intention; just so the US can get there creative photo-ops for the world. What is even more heinous about such as this, it is a too familiar face to Nazi Germany under Hitler. For anytime one sees distorted glass, it should be reminded that is not what the view as it really is and to see beyond the glass. For words or actions without real knowledge, makes for a bad situation and can make one appear foolhardy; too often doing what is never accptable in any realm of humanities guidelines; which the action or word without the knowledge does more harm then good for the self as well as others.

“The small, the helpless, the innocent are the victims of these forms of ill-treatment, which the horrors live on in the minds and hearts of those who survive…and the US holocaust still continues...”

The signature of Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and of his wife Sara are pictured in the guestbook after they visited the memorial site of the House of the Wannsee Conference on 27 August 2009 in Berlin (Germany).

As to all of us Jewish and Muslim alike, who continue to see the atrocities perpetrated upon us not only from those same people of the past, but their continuation as is seen upon us even today; it is assured, we will always continue live!

Furthermore, to have the strength and courage to never forget what has happened to all of us, but also always remember exactly who we actually are, who we belong too [Allah (Hashem)] and always shall be.-
HRM Deborah